SUMMARY 2 (7) 99
The ports of Kaliningrad - a
pledge of success in joining
But there is absent the port of Kaliningrad really. There are three absolutely various having been competitive ports and some port stations.
Having been functioning in such a regime the ports of Kaliningrad suffered not of some losses only, but elementary deprived of dynamical development and strengthening their infrastructure and financial power. There are on each enterprise not only the administrations, but many doubling each other services and departments. A positive moment in this situation is people employment. And during the last time most hot points are the ports of Kaliningrad, which try to stand up for their self-dependency and intact. But suffer from it first of all the ship-owners, which have a considerable losses after ships handling in the ports of Kaliningrad.
And how should have been on logic? All is very simply, and a decisive role there for a state authorities. It is necessary to found an Open Stock Company the Port of Kaliningrad with operating ports and various profile companies participation for all problems solving. And a most important thing is the port of Kaliningrad interests lobbing in Russian Governmental circles for a goods traffic attraction.
It would be seemed the way, but really there may be some difficulties connected with inter-bodies barriers. But interests of Kaliningrad region on the Baltic in our look is more important of various inter-bodies ambitions. The main thing is that the port of Kaliningrad should have been developed and bring incomes.
Kaliningrad factor in the Baltic
The Baltic region includes 9 states: Russia, Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Estonia. In spite of differences in their foreign-policy and social and economic statuses and priorities, and also on a ethnic, cultural, religious heterogeneity, these countries could have been created between them and in the Baltic space an atmosphere of neighbourhood, mutual understanding, stable and safe existence, what in one's turn gave a powerful incentive for inter-regional and frontier cooperation there. Such a result became possible due to ruling elides hereinafter states common mood to maintain tranquility, mantioned peace and concord in a region.
A considerable contribution to balance of power in this part of Europe have been contributing and Russia through claimed by Russian President long-term Russian policy concerning the Baltic states. According to it the strategic purpose of our country in the Baltic region is full neighbourhood potential realization between Russia and the Baltic states and a constructive relations model creation on an encouragement principles of the regional economic integration and bilateral economic cooperation and etc. Its ways also have been defined through the main problems regulation in region on a base of mutuality with maximum wide usage of cooperation in a links of UNO, EU, SCEO, Council of Europe, UBC.
Analyzes of Russia's cooperation with the Baltic region proves convincingly the presence of the Kaliningrad factor. The next examples give evidence about the Ka li nin g rad region's involving to Russian- Baltic cooperation :
it has a partner ties with 4 uyezds of Lithuanian Republic, 5 provinces of Poland, county of Danish Bornholm, land of German Shlezvig-Golshtein;
there are the general consulates of Poland and Lithuania, honorary consulates of Denmark and Sweden on its territory. In ones turn the Kaliningrad region opened its own representations in Vilnius and Gdansk;
Kaliningrad region acts reciprocally with the Baltic partners in a links of Euroregions ( Baltic and soon will take part in Saule).
On its territory there have been realizing some projects in a links of international programs and bilateral cooperation.
In 1945 the Potsdam conference decided to transfer Eastern Prussia to USSR (Koenigs berg and its area) and Poland without the term's indication but not for 50 years as some others say. Moreover there are some attempts (in Germany, Poland, Lithuania)to review the status of the Kaliningrad region as an integral part of Russian Federation and even a territorial and other claims (Resolution of Europar liament from the 2nd of February 1994 on the Kaliningrad region, the Baltic Assembly's resolution from 13th of November 1994 on the Kaliningrad region's demilitarization and its further development and etc).
And there is a problem is it possible or not to regard the Kaliningrad region as a subject of the Baltic cooperation. Russian position in this question is clear and invariable: Kaliningrad region having been an active participant of international cooperation is not an international law subject in accordance with Federal Law On coordination of International and External Economic Relations of the Consistent Entities of the Russian Federation. But there are an attempts from various international organizations in some countries to relax the ties of the Kaliningrad region with a last Russia and give to Kaliningrad more wide powers for the negotiations with international organizations. Such a position is not suitable for Russia as a counterproductive. Thus it is quite obvious a Russian Federation policy to form and estimate its relations with the Baltic region countries in a considerable degree in the light of the Kaliningrad region interests.
Some questions have been turned out well. First of all there have been formed a good contractual and legislative base of Russia and the Baltic region countries, which regulates the Kaliningrad region life-support questions. There have been provided in region an attractive conditions for foreign businessmen and investors with a Special economic zone creation in 1996 and a Federal unite Program of the Special economic zone development in the Kaliningrad region on 1998-2005. In 1998 a foreign trade turnover of region was 1,6 milliard $ (in 1997-1,7 milliard $) with a such leading partners: Germany, Poland, Lithuania. The sum of foreign investments in 1998 was 32,2 million $ (in 3,3 times more than in 1997) with leading investors such as Germany and Sweden. On the 1st of January there were 359 ventures with a foreign participation, 35 branches and 22 foreign firms representations. Kaliningrad region takes part in interregional and frontier cooperation in the Baltic region in order not to be isolated from other world, and nowadays Russian sovereignty under Kaliningrad region is undoubtedly from international and legislative point of view and not having been disputed somebody on interstate level. The special question of Russian side profound concern is NATO and European Union expansion to East due to Poland and Lithuania transformation their legislative bases to EU standards. Therefore it is so necessary the Baltic community participants common concord not to move oneself the situation around the Kaliningrad region in order having been its destabilization. Such a circumstance is a good occasion for all complex problems of the Baltic region submit of the consideration for a European commissions including the links of Russia-EU Agreement on partnership and cooperation.
GOLD RING OF THE BALTIC
Municipal District in foreign relations, E.G. Kropinova, member of the
Euro re gion Baltic spatial planning group, Program the Baltic University
Regional Centre director, Kaliningrad State University, Candi da te of
Geography, E.V. Butorova, Baltijsk Municipal District specialist in foreign
An absence of importance understanding for urban development not so far have been stipulated by the mass problems appearance, connected with a towns of the Kaliningrad region urban and transport infrastructures including engineering communications. Steel curtain's falling gave a possibility to touch lightly to the European City's interpretation due to that ecological, aesthetic standards demands of continuous perfection and in all Europe an urban development and planning questions went on the first place. European cities again open their coasts and nearest territories.
Kaliningrad region towns planning experience have been showed an extremely negative role of refusing from historical traditions and now it is necessary to reestablish a historical look, what is connected with a coastal territories arrangement.
With that end in view there have been created an international project Waterfront urban development-the city's net around the Baltic (Waterfront Urban development - WUD). It have had been supported by INTERREG II C, TACIS and PHARE programs. Its main purpose is investment programs preparation for waterfront territories arrangement. From Russian side Kaliningrad, Baltijsk and Saint-Petersburg will be a participants of the project. The possibilities of a ports and industry territories transformation in living coastal territories or to technological university's cities under industrial and port functions retaining. It will permit to enlarge a territories potential from a point of view of their recreational and tourist usage. A big attention will be paid there to the environmental questions.
In May 1999 in Potsdam (Germany) was a starting session in a links of a joint project INTERREG II C - PHARE - TACIS, and as a result three Russian cities have been included to project, and now there will be a difficult and long-term work of many specialists. On the first stage it is necessary to prepare a requests in TACIS European Commission for the project's additional financing, and despite of it the German side have been already financed the beginning of works.
Moreover, the project's realization will permit to Kaliningrad, Baltijsk and Saint-Petersburg become a precious stone of the cities net, which would possible to call a Gold Ring of the Baltic.
New in ship's agency service legislation
This article continues a rubric, which devoted to Maritime Merchant Navigation Codex discussion. Russian legislation does not have special legislative acts concerning agency service as whole and ship's agency service in particular before Part II Russian Federation Civil Codex and Maritime Merchant Navi ga tion Codex adoption. This service was fulfilled really by two organizations Transflot and Inflo t only. After RF Civil Codex adoption which was in action from the 1st of March 1996 there was given an agency contract idea and its main requirements defined. The details of a ship's agency service have been defined and adopted by Federal law Maritime Merchant Navigation Codex.
Its article 232 says that shipping agent is a ship-owner's representative and his commission have been based on ship's agency service contract. His powers is defined by 237 article. In international navigation practice there are some kinds of ship's agency agreements, but they are absent in a new Russian Codex. Unfortunately in a new Russian codexes there is absent an accent about responsibility of the sea agent to a third persons. In this case therefore a sea agent's choice is an important moment in a work of any shipping company and its success depends from it considerably.
Transport should be a priority branch of region's economy development having been near to European countries and distanced from its country. Due to its advantageous geographic position, technical being equipped and a big turnover the Sea Commercial Port of Kalinin grad is a most important object among region's transport enterprises.
Having been became one of the best region's ports in new technologies elaboration and implementation field, it to regret was closed for foreign vessels in a Soviet period, and its actions were based on a state monopoly and foreign trade centralization.
Absolutely new stage of its development have begun in 1991 after privatization and transforming to Limited Partnership. In this period have begun reconstruction and new port's capacities creation, developed a line shipping, new joint ventures and companies created with high service level providing in all a spheres of sea business, added a new port's specialization on cargoes new kinds. There have been constructed a new complex for Ro-Ro vessels and ferries, passengers pavilion, terminal for tank vessels, covered warehouses. With a foreign investor and Russian Stock company Gas-Oil jointly there have been constructed a terminal for fertilizers transshipment in bulk with a 1.2 million tonnes per year.
Today CSC the Sea Commercial Port of Kaliningrad renders sending and storage services by various lots to all world countries, provides transport, forwarding and warehouse operations, all complex of works, concerning ships mooring in port.
There are 22 berths with 3 km long including 2 for Ro-Ro vessels and ferries, 3 berths with elevators (to 40 thousand tonnes capacity), berth for tank vessels,12 covered warehouses with railways and guarded open warehouse cites with a square almost 300 thousand square meters.
There are a modern high productivity machinery and equipment for safe cargo transportation, own auxiliary fleet with a high-powered tugs, floating cranes, barges, own motor-vehicle pool with an experienced and highly qualified personnel; developed railway and road net connecting with all Russian regions and other countries - it all have been providing a cargoes loading high intensity and their safekeeping.
In 1998 SCPK have had a cargoes turnover 2026,1 thousand tonnes including export 1679,9 thousand tonnes, import 346,2 thousand tonnes with a main share of fertilizers, coke and scrap-metal - 60%.
Among the SCPK development prospects are container terminal construction finishing, computer park modernization (with a new automatic telephone station), refrigerator warehouse construction.
The Sea Commercial Port of Kaliningrad has all reserves for further development and any clients requirements in a rendering services wide range due to Federal program Russian Merchant Fleet Restoration including and the Law On Special Economic Zone in Kalinin grad region support.
What roads shall we drive to Europe?
Account about Lithuanian transport infra struc ture modernization and development and its transformation in accordance with the EU demands.
The goal of estimation needs process of transport infrastructure (TINA) is to define future trans-European net in a broadened European Union. For implementation and control over program European commission formed a group of high persons from all EU countries and 11 countries-candidates - Bulgaria, Czechia, Es to nia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Cyprus. TINA group have begun its work in a three geographical regions - the Baltic Sea, Central Europe and South-East Europe. Nowadays Germany, Austria and Greece have been in charge of these groups accordingly.
Look on the net
Through suggesting investments it is supposed to increase the trains' speed on Vilnius-Klaipeda line to 160 km/h and many other reconstruction and modernization measures of country's transport net including new part European railway line, VIA BALTIC and the port of Klaipeda reconstruction with its capacity increasing to 35 million tonnes per year, meteorological minimum increasing of the Palanga and Kaunas airports. This TINA program implementation will permit to approach Lithuanian transport infrastructure to the technical standards of European Union and to join gradually to dense trans-European transport net taking into account having been increased needs of EU.
Additional financing abilities
High-speed car-and-passenger ferries
conception for Russia's sea lines on the Baltic
Ferries play a special role in a shipping with a sea bridges function on a world transport communications. There are two types: railway ferries and car-and-passenger ferries. In one of the projects of so called The Baltic Bridge transport corridor an authors of some publications perfectly have forgotten that except the north European gates of Russia (Saint-Pe ters burg) there are the south gates of Russia on the Baltic - a largest and ice-free the port complex of Kaliningrad and Baltijsk. This aspect is a central in a project, which from 1994 on initiative of the Kaliningrad region Ad mi nis t ra tion and Leningrad region Government have suggested on a level of Federal Governmental Program.
Project The Baltic Bridge is planned as an international transport system, connecting a ports on the Baltic between each other and with the ports of West Europe. Such a project needs a technical and economic substantiation (TES). Such a substantiation have been elaborated on a high professional level by LENMORNIIPROECT in some variants. But there are some difficulties in a land transport communications of the Kaliningrad region due to necessity of transit via the Baltic states, where there are many various obstacles. For example the port of Kaliningrad turnover from 1990 to 1995 in a three times reduced. But even in a such situation the Kaliningrad transport junction of Russia on the Baltic importance is very high, because in 1997 a turnover of regional ports by sea transport was 5 300 000 tonnes - export and 660 000 tonnes - import cargoes.
Alternative and independent from neighbour states political ambitions ferry line The Baltic Bridge establishing answer economic and strategic Russia's interests on the Baltic. And the way from Kaliningrad to Saint-Petersburg with a high-speed ferries operation will be for about 11 hours. The problem have been examined, a purposes formulated, and what will be then? First of all it is necessary to attract Russian investors for a high-speed ferries (for example - under the Almaz project) building on Russian ship-yards. But for this project realization there should be a Governmental status of priory Russian Program and appropriate conditions creation.
Upward flight of native fishing industry
Fish industry and agriculture in an industrially developed countries provide the population by food and are a base their food security, and food's export is one of the main income's compound.
In 1986 together with a fortune of the USSR really have been determined the fortune of further these branches development. Native fishing industry have been born practically together with a Soviet power and destroyed also together. But before firstly in a world practice fishing industry and agriculture were separated in different sides and developed independently.
Having been passed the first examination of economic thinking through industrial economic mechanism creation, the USSR proved that it is able to live without import and does not deny an expediency of international labor's division.
With a Kaliningrad region formation there have been laid the foundation of fishing industry giant. Its economic effectiveness have been permitted in a middle of 70-s to lead landings to more one ton per capita in Kaliningrad region (three/four times as much if compare with a grain and fish prices on international market ). But from this period there have been begun raise sharply production cost value.
Fishery Ministry have begun to develop the finished product producing from raw material of distanced World ocean areas through large fishing faring vessels and floating factories what became a reason of its cost raising.
For 1 ton fish meal producing it is necessary to process 5-6 tonnes of raw fish material, for one ton tinned production - 1,8-2,0.In 1986 our needs in a fish meal were 2 million tonnes. But there have been supplied 764,5 thousand tonnes (37,3%) through 4476000 tonnes valuable fish raw material using with 3729500 tonnes of waste product including environment pollution. Just these 3729500 tonnes shortage in feeding poultry ration have been obliged us to import food, because 6 kg of meat and 26 kg of milk per capita we received through feeding grain import. Nowadays we have been counting not kilograms per capita, but say that we are forced to import 70-80% of these products.
Problems with a feed shortage in our agriculture have begun from 1967-68 and its peak was in 1986-87. Landings of our fishing fleet in these years were 12 million tonnes of raw fish material with a possibilities of more 20 due to strategic and tactic tasks of ocean fishery development for example a heck's epopee 1971-1972. A huge state investments to fishing industry in that times have been transformed it due many management mistakes in a planning-losing. And it is very riddle until why our population prefers the boiled sausage instead fish as a valuable and useful food product. And it is a high time after ten years period of mistaken strategy to begin a deliberate and rational fishing industry development. A country's food market demands branches - fishing industry and agriculture restoration as a unite pertaining to national economy machinery for food production producing.
About Kaliningrad region fishery
Kaliningrad region fishing industry was a priory direction of economy in former times. Annual fish and other fish production catch had been approached to 1 million tonnes with for about 10% total all country's landings. Ka li nin grad fishermen fulfilled their fishery in many World ocean areas. Nowadays regional fishing industry lost such a significance with landings increasing to 270 thousand tonnes per year.
After 1991 it have begun to breakdown on separate structures, which can not make an indivisible developing complex. They may be regarded as fishing industry, which development in comparison with a previous period have been developing only.
On geographical situation in Kaliningrad region may be divided some independent directions such as inland ponds, economic zone of Russia, economic zones of coastal foreign states, open ocean, conventional international areas, aqua-culture and fish-farming.
In Kaliningrad region are situated 362 rivers, brooks and canals with a long 3400 km, 39 lakes, Kurshskiy and Kaliningrad Gulfs with a total annual landings 3-4 thousand tonnes, but it is possible to increase it on 1-2 thousand tonnes through roach, perch and others. The base of landings are bream, pike-perch, smelt, eel, pike, burbot.
Russian economic zone in the Baltic Sea near a coasts of the Kaliningrad region has area for about 10 thousand square km. In 70-80-s a half of all coastal countries landings was the Baltic herring - 465 thousand in 1980. It was also a base of the Soviet fishery with 100-130 thousand tonnes annually. Considerable part was a cod (32-56 thousand tonnes - all countries) and sprat (approximately 30 thousand tonnes - all countries). In 90-s there having been increased the sprat's importance (28-136 thousand tonnes - all countries) and reducing more valuable traditional species such as cod (10-30 thousand tonnes) and the Baltic herring (25-38 thousand tonnes).
During a last years all species Russian total catch (by the Kaliningrad region mainly) is 25-30 thousand tonnes per year with a sprat dominating. But a potential landings as experts say may be on a level 75-100 thousand tonnes annually. However a tendency fish resources mass and structure changing is a subject of not only apprehension but and anxiety for the Kaliningrad fishery. Nowadays there have been worsening a main fishery species resources. For example - cod is in depressive condition, though our fishermen have been realizing 40-50% their quotas only due to serious economic difficulties.
One of the fishes reproduction reducing reasons is a dangerous situation with a difficult environmental situation on the Baltic Sea and due to its chemical weapon's pollution after the WWII. In April 1997 in Saint-Pe ters burg was a Russian fishing conference with a discussion about condition and fishing industry prospects. There have been said that Russia may have annual landings approximately 9,5 million tonnes including 50% in a Russian areas. Now we use a potential resources in Russian zones on 37-48% and in foreign zones - 22% only of total catches. Kaliningrad fishermen have a good fishery experience in a zones of various World ocean in interests of native fishing industry. For example their expedition fleet's total landings in Central-East Atlantic (CEA) in 1987-1992 was 200-300 thousand per year, but from 1993 the landings have decreased to 50-100 thousand tonnes with mackerel and horse mackerel prevailing. World's catching in CEA is annually more 3 million tonnes including 1 million Soviet fleet till 1991. In 1994 Russian catch there reduced to 167 thousand tonnes and in 1996 it approached to 384 thousand tonnes.
Concerning the Kaliningrad fishermen perspectives in CEA they are very favourable due to its availability and a good fish resources. Various types of vessels daily catch may be there from 35 to 70 tonnes (horse mackerel, sardine, mackerel, sardinella). And it is a high to time to expanse our fishery from inner reservoirs and the Baltic Sea to Central-East Atlantic, and it is necessary to sign mutually beneficial agreements with CEA coastal countries in order to provide a legislative base for it. AtlantNIRO has all conditions for such a preparation work, and this question can not be delayed, because such a steps have been doing fishermen of Holland, Germany, Spain and other countries.
Devotion to life-work
Nikita Sevastyanov (1924-1993)
After Moscow fishing technical institute graduating in 1951 he completed there a post-graduated course and received the Candidate degree on whaling ships designing. In 1959 he removed from Moscow to Kaliningrad together with institute, where during 32 years (till 1991) he have headed the theory of ship department.
He was a recognized in our country and abroad specialist in a ships designing and nautical qualities. Some times was UNO and other international organizations expert.
He have had prepared 17 Candidates of science, is an author of many scientific works, monographs and articles. The main direction of headed by him ship's theory department was a ships nautical qualities normalizing scientific substantiation. A main purpose of all professor Sevastyanov life-work is the ship's theory connection with its sailing safe questions.
Autumn herring fishing season near
the Norwegian coasts prospects
Nowadays it is difficult to imagine a fish market without so favourite and available for Russian consumer product, which is Atlantic-Scandinavian herring. And in early 90-s this fish production was in deficit.
The reason of such a good changes is appearing near Norwegian coasts in 1990-93 a high-yield spring-spawn herring generation with its considerable bio-mass increasing. In 1998 herring's spawn reserve have reached its maximum - 10.5 million tonnes in comparison with 4.6 million tonnes in 1990. There have not been a yield generations after 1993, and nowadays there is observing the spawn reserve reducing : in 1999 - 9 mln tonnes, and in 2000 it is expected its reducing to 7.3 mln tonnes.
Herring's fishery is strictly regulated through possible permissible catching (PPC) for all herring fishery countries, which have been increased constantly from 82 thousand tonnes in 1990-91 to 1400 thousand tonnes in 1997. In 1999 the PPC defined on a level of 1400 thousand tonnes with 165.4 thousand tonnes for Russia including 130 in Norwegian economic zone, 5.6 in Icelandic economic zone, 7 in Faeroe's economic zone, 11 around Yan-Maien island economic zone and 11.5 in the Norwegian Sea open part.
Fishery have been beginning in February on a Norwegian sand-shoals till the end of March with a most high productivity in a spring herring fishing season. Pick condition herring fishery is possible in a Faeroe's fishing zone in April-May, in economic zones of Iceland and Yan-Mayen island and in the Norwegian Sea open part in May-July. However due to low technological raw material quality a fishery scales are insignificant in this period and fishermen prefer to catch another North-West Atlantic pelagic species - blue whiting and mackerel.
A situation have been changing cardinal in the end of August after pick condition finishing a fat herring return in area of Lofoten Islands. The time of autumn fishing season begins with a fleet's concentration near the Norwegian coasts. The table one shows a Russian quotas dynamic during last ten years. Till 1995 it have been realized in spring and in 1998 for the first time this quota have not been realized due to Norwegian authorities additional restrictions establishing in a north part of area with a 14 thousand tonnes remainder.
It is very important to know in these conditions the distribution of herring accumulations in autumn and their availability for Russian fishery, because its migration for last years was more to north. And in 1999 it is expected there water temperature rising, and there have been possible a fish further moving to north-west along the polar front zone. So a situation may be the same as in 1998 , therefore there will be possible some considerable difficulties with Russian quota's remainder (56 thousand ton nes ) realization. Its not full realization may lead to PPC redistribution and Russian's share reducing.
Recommended to begin herring fishery in Norwegian economic zone some earlier, for example in August middle, may be remain without attention due to fishing fleet privatization, and no one go to the Norwegian coasts for fishery untill it is more profitable for him to catch mackerel in an open part of the Norwegian Sea. To organize a timely search by 1-2 vessels and to concentrate in area maximum power fishing vessels it is seemed possible, but there may be an obstacle Russian quota's division between basins and associations.
With a spring fishing season counting there have remained to catch for Kaliningrad fishermen for about 11 thousand tonnes with 4 thousand tonnes for Sapryba with its 9-10 large vessels and 0 tonnes for Westrybflot , which have been pick out its quota in spring. At the same time a North basin quota's remainder is 45 thousand tonnes and its full realization seemed very problematically. In this situation it would be reasonably to give an opportunity for all fishing companies to work in a common Russian quota's account.
What's the use of sea fish
No one world country can attach great importance World ocean living resources as a raw material source for the full value food, feed and technical production manufacturing. Fish and sea products catching provides now for about 20% having been using in food animal protein. Live-stock farming and fishery nowadays only are the main full value animal protein source.
Fish is not regarded in a world practice as a considerable energy source (calories) for example as animal meat. The main value of fish is easy assimilated full value protein. For example a beef nave been assimilating within 5 hours, but a fish - 2-3 hours. Moreover under cooking fish losses less 20% of water opposite two times as much as animal meat. Fish production on this reason is more delicate and juicy, what is favourable for ill gastric people nourishment, diet and children catering. For children and fat people a fish with a little fat content is health-giving such as a cod, hake, rough-headed grenadier, hoki (blue grenadier), blue whiting and others. For old people in order to prevent cordial ills is more health-giving fish with a big fat content especially sardine, white sardinella, mackerel, herring, salmon, capelin, sprat and others.
Fish proteins' special value caused amino acids correlation. There are all necessary amino acids for life living in it. So it may be regarded that 200 gram of fish meet the man's requirements in irreplaceable amino acids. Besides it prevents hypertension development. Fish fats have been better assimilated in comparison with animals ones and they have a low cholesteric content, what is health-giving for the people after 40 age. Japanese having been eating fish are a long-livers. Sea fish is considerably pure than fresh water's one and so provides a favourable usage perspective in people's nourishing diet.
Ship's stability. Common descriptions
What is the ship's stability? The ship's stability is its ability having been taking out of equilibrium position to return into it after operating reason finishing, which caused this deviation. This article describes this problem in a dialogical form of lecturer and captain. There is also a water descriptions table of ship's stability situations and some its formulas.
Nontraditional shipbuiling need financial
Fishing industry having been endures nowadays not best its time. Expedition fishery by a large trawlers was very expensive in a new economic conditions and have been spared for the coastal zone even can not realize the Baltic herring's quotas. This year for the Kaliningrad region citizens again there will be a cheap fresh frozen local origin fish shortage, which has a traditionally high consumer's demand.
After the 17th of August crisis there is no a slightest hopes for foreign construction vessels gaining and the Baltic State Fishery Academy professor I. Goldenberg on the Kalining rads kaja pravda pages from 4.02. 1999 have been suggested non traditional for Russia shipbuilding idea from armature cement as a ferro-concrete variant. World practice vessels shipbuilding to 100 metres long had been showed despite the hull's weight 20% increasing in comparison with steel ones they have all necessary strength, seaworthy and operational qualities. Moreover a ferro-concrete hulls are 2-2.6 times as much cheaper steel ones.
For fishing vessels building with a ferro-concrete hulls it is possible to use the Kaliningrad local house-keeping enterprises capacities. Their term of operation according to Chinese publications is more 30 years. And for the vessels with a steel hull it is necessary to have more repairing with a 40% hull's replacement after such age approaching.
It is necessary Russian fleet's renovation state program with a concrete financing. But it is possible to solve this problem and in a regional level with a local authorities help, for example in a humanitarian aid links or first of all to provide our specialists first-hand acquaintance with a foreign experience in this field.
MARINE TECHNOLOGIES LTD The European
quality under Russian prices
At present nobody is any more surprised with usage of computer-based technologies in shipbuilding. The point is that in Russia such computer-based technologies have not received that development as abroad especially in conditions of fall of ship-building production . None of shipbuilding or shiprepair yard and every marine consulting bureau in Poland, Germany, Holland or Norway can now manage without Computer Aided De sig ning (CAD) and/or Computer Aided Manu fac tu ring (CAM). Some shipyards have their own CAD/CAD departments. Others, who do not consider for themselves to the expedient contents of own subdivision, are taking use of specialized firms using the last achievements in this area. The practice displays, that even the large yards having own computer project subdivisions (such as BLOHM + VOSS in Germany or STOCHNIA GDYNIA in Poland) frequently place orders for development of workshop documentation with such specialized companies.
Marine technologies founded in 1998 is an example of such company. The founders of firm are two companies for a long time and actively working in shipbuilding business - Kaliningrad firm RUMPEL and German yard FR.FASSMER GmbH and Co . The personnel of Marine technologies consists of the qualified engineers possessing having experience of working on a shipbuilding yard, and also trained on western yards and in project bureaus and consequently, on the one hand, having complete knowledge about organization of ship-building process, and with another - having up-to-date software and "know-how", invoked to simplify and to update work of ship-building yard.
Now main direction of Marine technologies activity is the development of workshop drawings and nesting documentation for manufacture of a ship's hull on the basis of the classification project, provided by the customer. At first specialists of the company develop complete 3-D model of the hull including all structural members such as shell plating, decks, bulkheads, longitudinal and transverse framing etc. Presence of such model in further allows to receive any information required to the customer in the form of the drawings, tables, sketches or programs for NC-cutting of metal.
At the moment YANTAR Shipyard is construction the hull of 54 m long fishing surveillance vessel with use of work workshop drawings developed by Marine Technologies , for company FASSMER . Also in 1998 the firm has developed nesting documentation for construction of a container carrier for 2700 TEU's pr. 8184 and automobile-carrier pr. 8168 at GDYNIA Shipyard. It is possible also to mark an order's performance for Nor we gian shipowner development of the documentation for the widening of the seiner vessel which has been carried out on the yard NAUTA , Poland. All documentation is tailored to the demands of the concrete customer - technology of the shipbuilding used on the Yard, type of NC-cutting machines, available at a factory, software used by these machines, the presentation form of information. The documentation is delivered on that language, which is required to the customer: Russian, Polish, English, German.
The firm is planning by the end of this year to extend sphere of its activity in order to offer the customers a complete package of project documentation required for construction (repair, modernization) of the vessel, including:
In order to gain this aim the firm Marine technologies actively cooperates with the ship-building faculty of the Ka li nin grad En gi neering University express, specialists of project institutes of St.-Petersburg, designer firms of Poland and Germany. Since May 1999 the employees of firm permanently undergo training on shipbuilding yards and in project bureaus of Poland, Germany, Holland.
Marine Technologies uses a modern software, both developed in Russia and packages used by shipyards and project bureaus of Western Europe. The programmers of the firm also themselves develop necessary application software and posses a number of unique programs of own production.
In the present moment the customers Marine Technologies are a foreign firms, which have already appreciated quality of work, strict observance of contract, delivery time, operative reaction to all inquiries and notes, low costs comparing to European standards. We hope, that with revival of a ship-building industry in Russia services offered by Marine Tech no lo gies will be demanded also by Russian shipyards and we from our side are ready to use the best efforts that the shipbuilding yards of Russia will have constituted a worthy competition to their Western colleagues.
The Baltic Fleet's ship-repair problems
Analysis of ship-repairing possibilities of the Baltic Fleet shows, that under financing presence there is possible to make all necessary kinds of repair according to directive terms for the ships and vessels despite of leaving in the Baltic states three ship-repairing enterprises. But the fleet's reducing permits to fill this gap at the Kaliningrad region and Saint-Petersburg enterprises.
But a nowadays situation as before does not allow to ensure ships and vessels operation according to established terms. An average age of the Baltic Fleet's fighting ships is 18 years and support ships - 23, 12% of fighting ships and 59% of support ships have had a record of their limitation, 80% of fighting and support ships have an extended inter-repairing terms, 90% of fighting and support ships have a running out terms of docking, a considerable part of fighting ships join the fleet has a limitations of some technical equipment operation.
But despite of it we consider that the Baltic Fleet's ships general quarters is considerable and a most high of percentage in Navy. There have been provided by ship-repair in 1996 - 16 ones, 1997 - 8 ones, 1998 - 4 ones, 1999 - 3 ones. Hence there have been elaborated on the fleet a life-communication plans of technical readiness providing till 2001,2005, 2010. We consider that after 2010 under such a ship-repair providing it is inexpedient to observe any technical readiness of ships and support ships due to possible mass emergencies. For example a naval shipyards on the Baltic Fleet have no a spare parts and assembling for machinery and equipment.
We see the way out from such a situation till 2000 in refusing from middle and current repairs of the 1st and 2 nd rank ships at the industrial enterprises. Ships of 3rd and 4th rank have been providing current repairs only.
There are some problems in a ship-repair on the Baltic Fleet and particularly:
Sunk ships full of poison
And despite wide debate on the issue, nothing had emerged in the way of a plan to combat the dangers posed by the chemicals, which date back to World War II. Most of the chemicals were confiscated from Nazi Germany but about 45 00 tonnes came from the Allied Powers. They were dumped into the Baltic under an agreement among the Allies.
60 ships were sunk
"There is nobody to blame," Mr Borisov insisted. "The method seemed pretty safe, bearing in mind level of scientific knowledge of the 1940-s. Environmentalists, however, believe a toxic leak is possible that would mean disaster for the Baltic Sea and parts of the North Sea, and could affect the harvesting of more than 2 million tonnes per year of seafood."
"The biodiversity of the Baltic already is threatened by these chemicals that already have contaminated the sea in small amounts," said Mr Igor Abramov of Kaliningrad 's Institute of Oceanology.
The Institute, a research center, achieved celebrity status for its role in assisting film director James Cameron in shooting deep-sea footage of the sunken Titanic for his film of the same name. The Institute's experts relied on the same mini-submarines- shown in the movie - to explore the floor of the Baltic Sea.
Between Norway, Sweden and Denmark
"Paradoxically, that primitive dumping practice has proved to be safer because a single barrel does not contain enough poison to produce hazardous pollution," declares to Mr Borisov.
"On the contrary, when chemical barrels are concentrated inside a sunken ship, the upper layers press and gradually destroy the lower layers of barrels - this is how a massive leak could occur," he said.
Half of all the barrels that have been under water for more than 50 years contain mustard gas, while the others are filled with more than a dozen other deadly poisons, including zyklon B, the nerve gas used in the Nazi's death chambers.
Mustard gas causes cancer
That is why there is almost certainly some degree of contamination now, and more massive leaks could be expected within the next five to seven years. He has proposed a plan that would involve encasing the ships in a special concrete.
Chemical weapon substances, notably mustard gas, have been proven to cause cancer and undesirable mutations in human body, said Prof. Valentin Tarasov, Chairman of the Russian Society for research of mutations.
"Mankind has produced some 10 million chemical substances so far, but there are just few dozens as dangerous as mustard gas; there is now such thing as a safe level with it," he claims. Many scientists in the region , however, believe that the problem is localized and will not affect the whole Baltic Sea. They argue that the submerged chemical weapons could only become dangerous if fishing boats took in catches from near the contaminated sites - and these could be avoided as dumping sites are marked on all charts.
To make mustard gas inoffensive
"However, it must be remembered that these experiments were carried out in laboratories with a water temperature of about 20 C . It's much colder on the floor of the North Sea, and hydrolysis takes much longer time to occur," he said.
The 300 tonnes stock of chemical weapons on the Baltic Sea floor is triple the amount now in the arsenals of Russia and the United States combined. Currently, thousands of tons of poisonous military gases are being kept at seven main storage facilities across European Russia.
When it ratified the international Chemical Weapons Convention in November 1997, Moscow promised to destroy all its chemical weapons by 2008 but now says it needs 5.5 bn USD to do the job.
Russia can not afford to destroy chemical weapons
Russia is going to use a provision in the convention allowing an additional five years, according to Lt. Gen. Valery Kapashin, director of the department of liquidation of chemical weapons of the Russian Defense Ministry. Environmentalists argue that Russian security for existing stocks is insufficient , and chemical weapons storage sites appear to be vulnerable to theft from within and attack from without.
"If sinking toxic chemicals on the sea bed is so safe, why is it
that neither Russia nor the United States are going to dispose of the
rest of their stocks of chemical weapons in this cheap way?" asked
Mr Anikeev. "It is obviously because the submerged chemicals pose
a great environmental threat."
A scrap-heaps and slag-heaps at the cost and to sea is usual phenomenon in a man's interaction with a sea. To 500 million cubic metres of soil have been unloading to sea annually now including 2,5 million in a south-east part of the Baltic and 1,2 million at the Kaliningrad sea coast. Only on Yantarny coast area from an amber group of enterprises there were dumped more than 70 million cubic metres mostly sand soil and from the beginning of century for about 90 million cubic metres of soil.
Is it good or badly? In Yantarny area it has a positive influence, because the coast there become under defence of 90-100 metres sand beaches and there is a positive balance of soiling drift in an area of more than 50 kilometres.
Concerning a scrap-heaps of soil to sea it was there only two ones. There is a negative influence in case of presence in soil a toxic matters and various harmful for environment metals. For example in Poland a sand have been returned to the coast for a beach feeding. But it is necessary to make in reasonable proportions, for example not how it have been ma de in Finnish Gulf area near Saint-Petersburg.
A soil with pollution in a little quantity it is possible to scrap-heap it on a depth not less 50 metres. In Kaliningrad region soon it will be necessary to remove not less 4 million cubic metres of pollution soil, but which way? Our neighbours on the Baltic region will not allow it in their waters as it was after a World War II in a Danish straits and near Bornholm island, where a chemical weapon was dumped.
The best way of pollution soil burring is its laying in special foundation pits near the coast in a bays and lagoons. It will be not more expensive than dumping to the sea.
Nowadays it is a classic modern problem.
To Kiel arrive due to water
So like to say its citizens, because the city is a country's sea gates on the Baltic coast of Germany. Every there is the Kiel's Week with its central event - regatta.
City is situated on a coasts of bay Kiler-Ferde, which juts out into the land on 17 km. From 250 000 to 270 000 people are inhabited on its territory of 70 square kilometres. Kiel was founded by the count Adolf IV in 1242 with a purpose to be the Baltic trade centre. But in 1871 all have been changed cardinal, and city became the main naval base of Germany at the Baltic Sea. Within some decades it have been became on of the cities and country's military-industrial centre.
Modern Kiel does not look as ancient having been founded in 13th century else. Its fortune is similar with the Dresden's one. In 1945 English aviation have been destroyed it fully (on 80%) and it have been built practically all over again.
The main part of city's industry is shipbuilding with 40 000 people engaging. Its largest enterprise is Howaldswerke Deutche Werft with a lion's share of orders for theGerman naval forces. Besides there are a ventures of electric-technical and food industry, precision mechanic and optic. Kiel is a motherland of gyro-compass and echo-sounder.
In 60-s Kiel became the gates to Scan di na via and the main transport point between the north and south, west and east with a 1,7 million passenger's transit, 4,4 million tonnes of cargoes and 50 000 vessels passing. Here are a dense net of railways and roads, ferry lines with all the Baltic region countries including Saint-Petersburg.
The port of Kiel is one of largest on the Baltic and the most big in Germany with annual turnover more than 1,5 million tonnes including 80% of export. Due to Kiel's canal the port has connected with Elba river harbour of 15-16 metres depth, which almost ice-free in a winter. The port has 6 berths from 200 to 500 metres, elevator with a capacity more 13 000 tonnes, 2 refrigerators with an area 6 thousand square metres and warehouses of more 12 000 square metres.
Kiel is also a big scientific and cultural centre. There are one of ancient In Europe universities, some scientific and research centres including World Economic Institute, some theatres and museums. President of city is a member of socialist fraction Katy Kitcer, Dane in origin, and its Mayor some years is Mr. Norbert Hanzel.
Kiel's citizens like to say that the main sightseeing are a Kiel's Week and the Kiel's canal. In annual Kiel's regatta take part for about 1500 yachts from all over a world. In 1936 and 1972 there were a sailing sport Olympic competitions. For the Kiel's Week participation as a tradition there arrive near 20 military ships including the Baltic Fleet from 1993. They visit naval memorial in Labjo. And other sightseeing - Kiel's canal is called a blue artery way of Schleswig-Holstein, which was built at the end of last century 99 kilometres long and connected the Baltic and the North Seas.
Night without special events
It is a termination article of professor as a sea traveler. Here he tells about all interesting impressions during their squid fishing from a board of vessel. There are some their species in Atlantic, which have been divided it on zones of influence.
In the North Atlantic there have been prevailing a specie Bartrama. In a tropics there have been inhabiting a squid with a wings as a hands. These species change the places of their inhabitation in winter and in summer.
Having been a very mysterious sea animals squids die after as a salmons after their first spawning as a tragic pay for their existence struggle and competitiveness with a huge number large predatory of other pelagic fishes.
The Novella became a first Russian yacht, which took part in International Rose-Regatta. The competitions of yachtsmen-journalists were hold firstly in 1994. But unchanged have been remained a participants desire to compete with in sailing masterpiece and to develop the friendly relations.
1999 was marked by a 10th joint Germany devotion. The journalists have been succeeded in finding the positive changes in Eastern Germany. A regatta's organizers at the end of each intermediate finish nave been arranged a parties with a local authorities participation.
There were an automobile concern Fiat , ener gy company Vasa Energy , Stralsund Maritime Mu seum and hotel Neptun in a number of sponsors and regatta's organizers.
Naturally enough Russian yacht have had a great interest from not only the organizers, but a participants. At the end of regatta a Russian yacht's crew have had a not less popularity than a regatta's winners because we were a same normal fellows.
The first stage of regatta was in War ne mun de outer roads on an Olympic scheme. It was clear from the beginning that Russian yacht the Novella have been inferior to all other participants in a construction and sails quality. There have been remained one only - to show masterpiece in regatta, and Russians made it having been all distance nearly among first fifteen ones.
The second stage have began after a fine party in Neptun hotel, but there the Novella was not luck due to running aground and supplying yacht the Aldebaran have helped us after a four attempts, and the prize for us became an unforgotten bottle...
The third stage started at the early morning to the port of Stralsund. Nearly half a distance we were among first 10 participants with a 16th place on a finish. In evening we were invited to the Holland schooner, where we unexpectedly got a prize (cup) For a Will to Win on the second stage.
Forth stage was bet ween the ports Stralsund and Greifswald with a fine weather.
Fifth stage have be gun at the lay out of Greifswald with a finish in a Lauterbach yacht harbour.
Sixth stage was around little island Wilm. After the regatta finish all a prize champagne a winners presented to the Novella crew as a sign of friendship and future meetings.
Bark's the Krusenshtern new quality
Famous sailing ship the Krusenshtern have been numbering more 73 years already. From 1926 to 1938 the bark was a German cargo ship and went a number long-term voyages to the coasts of South America and Australia with a speed absolute record establishing between sailing ships of its class have been sailed for 67 days only the way form the port of Hamburg to Australian the port of Victoria. During World War II a handsome sailing ship have been used as a barge for cargoes transportation on a short distances.
In 1946 bark was transferred to the Soviet Union property and till 1966 joined in naval Hydrographic Service. Within this period on its board there have been made many various investigations and many famous scientists- oceanologists worked. A song about the vessel one of them - Alexander Gorodnitskiy "Sails of the Kruzenshtern" is famous for many people. In 1961 bark took part in the events of so called Carribbean crisis as an auxiliary service ship. In 1966 the last windjammer was assig ned to USSR Fishery Ministry with a training vessel and have begun from this period a constant participant of regattas and having been among a winners.
In 1995-1996 in honour of 300th Russian Fleet's anniversary bark went voyage round the world having been repeated Kruzen shtern's world cruise route. During this expedition there have been collected by scientific group under crew's assistance a various hydrometeorological and biological data with many museum exponats. This work obtained a specialists' high recognition. On a vessel's board also was created a stationary research laboratory and an agreement was signed between ATLANTNIRO and the Baltic State Academy about joint scientific investigations.
Within first two spring voyages 1998-1999 on a traditional for bark routs there have been fulfilled many complex oceanographic, hydro me teorological, biological and other various investigations and many data obtained.
In that way bark the Krusenshtern gained a new quality: additionally to cadets training her became a scientific-research vessel.
Translation - Vladimir Pay-Gorskiy