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Artur Kuznetsov, Representative of Russian Foreign Ministry in Kaliningrad
Foreign affairs of the Kaliningrad region were formed due to collapse of the Soviet Union and regionТs efforts to ensure its survive in a new conditions, the search of interaction effective forms to federal centre and its Baltic region neighbours.

A considerable work was made here by the Russian Foreign Ministry, which opened its representation in 1992 and founded a coordinatorТs post on the Kaliningrad region in its staff. It also helped to prepare a federal centreТs conception concerning Kaliningrad region with an idea of the Special economic zone creation and development priority. It is necessary to note firstly in Russian modern history a Russian ambassadors at ten states meeting in 1995 in Kaliningrad for actions coordination with the region.

The main regionТs foreign partners are first of all the states and administrative and territorial institutions of Baltic region. There are a consulate institutions of Lithuania and Poland in Kaliningrad, opened the branch of Byelorussian embassy, appointed a honorary Swedish and Danish consul, both as ItalyТs will be soon.

The table N1 shows a foreign trade turnover, the table N 2 - a sums of foreign investments of the Kaliningrad region.

It is necessary to note a Russian-Polish Council of Cooperation the Kaliningrad region and Polish regions as a form of international cooperation. A Working group for cooperation between Lithuanian and Kaliningrad regions is growing its importance in a links of Intergovernmental Russian-Lithuanian Commission. But most important for region there are the questions concerning European UnionТs expansion due to LithuaniaТs and PolandТs forthcoming joining. What is will be its influence to the economy of the Kaliningrad region due to new standards, norms and rules? An answers to these questions will be find in a triangle Kaliningrad - Moscow - Brussels. North countries Finland and Sweden declared about them right away after EU joining. It is so called North Measurement with a complex development. A newspaper Lietuvos Ritas 2.11.1998 published an information about opinion of some Estonian politics, where they are consider their country not Baltic but North and distanced from Latvia and Lithuania. It was not without reason Brussels preferred Estonia first for EU entering probably due to North Measurement. In 1997 the administration of Saint-Petersburg simultaneously to Finns announced about its Baltic initiative with some projects on development the North transport corridors, finances, ecology, culture and etc. Two these initiatives quite good harmonize with each other, creating a powerful potential of development. Finland is not seeking to NATO and it is more attractive the North Measurement of EU for Russia.

But it is can not be said about Kaliningrad region and surrounded its abroad due to its considerable less dynamic of development. To call it the bridge between the West and East can an optimist only, because it is not more than VyborgТs district of Leningrad region on the some figures of foreign trade turnover due to small figures the port of Kaliningrad turnover, and it is necessary an energetic steps of a transport heads for not making worse. There are necessary our Russian measures, for example, establishing close contacts between Kaliningrad and Saint-Petersburg for a consequences relaxation of the North capital gigantism. It is a pity, our city is not serious participant of a big Baltic Cities Conference and North-West Economic Association. And finally, IТd like to offer one sea trip through a perimeter of Euroregion Baltic in 2000 with the callings to its ports with the purpose of popularization of its cooperation, development of neighbourly relations practice: to see the world and to show ourselves.

Vladimir Pay-Gorskiy, Maritime Industry
On November 24th at the office of SAS in Kaliningrad was an inauguration of Honorary Denmark Consulate. At the great opening took part a Governor of the Kaliningrad region L. Gorbenko, Chairman of Regional Duma V. Ustjugov, Mayor of Kaliningrad Ju. Savenko and other official persons and guests. Danish side was represented by Danish Foreign Ministry Permanent foreign policy Secretary Friis Arne Petersen, Danish Ambassador in Russia Kristian Hoppe and BornholmТs County Mayor Knud Andersen. Mr Arkadiush Binek, Head of the Kaliningrad regional SAS representation was appointed as a Honorary Consul of Denmark.

SAS operates successfully here during five years connecting Kaliningrad via Copenhagen wth European capitals. Russian Danish relations became more friendly and good-neighbourly due to Danish counties contacts with the most west Russian region. Denmark helps us during some last years in ecologist problems solving and windpower engineering. 23 windpower installations additionally functioning one will be construct here in 1999. It is necessary to point out a long-standing fruitful cooperation of our educational institutions, scientific centres, public organizations, fish industry. An Agreement and Program of Cooperation was signed in February between Bornholm county and Kaliningrad region for three years. They intend to help us in creation of a new social centre, European information Centre and in studying of EU structure. Via the port of Kaliningrad is carrying out ferry line with Denmark.

Danish government follows an active and fruitful work for cooperation in the Baltic Sea region in a total expenses for about of 10 million dollars. An opening the next their representation is a one else mutual step of Danish and Russian diplomacy in a concern of rapprochement of two friendly peoples. But a solving of this question time occupied two years. However that efforts will be repaid a hunredhold, because a flight to Copenhagen is becoming more crowded with the next direct way to Europe. A problem of deficiency information on potential partners for business people is resolved, and it is not necessary to make a voyage to Moscow for Danish and Sweden visas. In December here had been also opened at the same stereotyped pattern a Honarary Swedish consulate. Our city appears more frequently on a diplomatic map not only Europe, and a list of its diplomatic representations soon will be replenished by Italian and other consulates, and it will be some more of sun in a cold Baltic water, and not only Denmark and Sweden will become nearer.

Knud Andersen, County Mayor of Bornholm, Denmark
An island Bornholm, DenmarkТs smallest county, is situated in a south-west part of the Baltic Sea. Bornholm has an area 587 km2 and 45 000 inhabitants distributed in 5 municipalities. One of its characteristics is a unique landscape. In an islandТs geographical area of 20-30 km you can find a steep rocky slopes, large forests with waterfalls and a long white sandy beaches. A particularly mild climate provides a fauna, which differs considerably from other territory of a country, with Mediterranean tinges, such as a wild fig trees and mulberry trees.

Trade and industry of Bornholm has a big conversion process towards less dependence on the primary trades and increased internationalization. Every conceivable business is represented on the island: agriculture, fishery and tourism, which are the main. An enterprises of Bornholm put a lot of efforts into production and marketing of quality local speciality products. BornholmТs Cooperative Diary received a diploma for producing the best cheese in a world. The chicken slaughterhouse BornPoultry produces a famous Bornholm Cock, which was awarded a prominent Danish food prize a couple years ago. Furthermore, an island can boast a completely salmonella-free eggs of poultry production.

A great investments in new tourist attractions and holiday forms, such as business tourism and farm life tourism, combined with a decision to go for a new closed markets, such as Poland and Baltic countries, have had a very positive effect to the number of tourists visiting Bornholm. It is the only tourist region in Denmark achieved during recent years an experienced and significant increase in the number of visitors, which amounts of more than 480 000 people a year.

Art and culture have a high priority in Bornholm. In an area of about the size of Paris there are so many artists, artistic craftsmen and a fine museums , that for a moment you have the feeling of being in a big city. A community had been created, where art and culture constitute an equally important subject for discussion for other questions of life.

A technological development also has a high priority here. By the present establishment of the Bornnet, a Bornholm community will be connected through a computer network, which will make it much easier to acquire knowledge and solve a tasks by means of the network for the benefit of BornholmТs trade and industry competitive power. A Research Centre of Bornholm in Nexe and Baltic Media Centre in Svaneke, which has initiated a visionary distance learning project in cooperation with RoskideТs University, are two fine examples of fact, that it is possible to create more jobs in a fields of education, science and research within nearest years.

During 1990s, Bornholm have been acquired a central position in the Baltic Sea cooperation, signed bilateral agreements of cooperation with a regions of all countries around the Baltic Sea. Bornholm is also an active participant of the Euroregion Baltic, the B7 cooperation- the still closer cooperation between seven largest islands of the Baltic Sea, and Four Corners Cooperation with a nearest regions- South-East Scania, Regen and Swinoujscie.

Stanislav Bulgakov, Ushakov Navy Institute Humanitarian and Social-Economic disciplines chair Head
The sphere of navy activity in a time of war and peace is a World Ocean with its growing significance including navigation and international trade. Russia is connected through the seas and oceans with more than 120 countries, but has a land borders with 18 states only. To defend the stateТs interests in a World Ocean can the strong navy only. Various situations may be as a threat for the stateТs interests of Russia in a World Ocean. It may be a military operations, blockade actions with a navigation or other economic activity limitations, navy presence with a purpose to prevent a national interests of Russia in a World Ocean realization, discrimination of secured rights for fishery and other activity, violation a norms of the International Sea Law and the norms of economic safety, an acts of piracy and terrorism. International Law UNO Convention 1982 (article 107) determinates the capture right for piracy have military ships or other state vessels only.

The purposes of Russian Navy actions in World Ocean for economic activity guaranteeing in a peace time are: safeguarding of navigation freedom and security, economic activity, free access to a World Ocean resources, sea Russian economic zones resources inviolability. According to purposes of actions are determined the tasks of navy in a time of peace: navigation and fishery safeguarding; control for economic and other activity of other countries, which has a certain threat for Russia; participation in a humanitarian actions; research activity safeguarding.

Navy and civil fleets cooperation is ensuring through various directions, such as shipbuilding technologies and navigational instruments elaboration, participating in a search-saving operations, hydrographic providing. Nowadays there is rising an intensity of shipment, growing the number of military conflicts near important sea communications and a facts of Russian sailors discredit abroad. Due to NATOТs expansion to the East there is growing a significance of the Baltic Fleet in an operational and strategic safeguarding of military and economic security of state. In this case only a strong, ocean and balanced Navy is able to make a stand of national interests in any World Ocean district.

Vladimir Pay-Gorskiy, Maritime Industry
During some last years the question of Kaliningrad region development as a large-scale transport knot and trade storage complex is actively studying not only on local, but even Russian government level due to ice-free sea ports location with a 15 million tonnes capacity and advantageous geographical disposition, nearness to European ports and capitals, high developed transport communications with two railway standards, status of Special Economic Zone (from 1996). The subsequent development of an international transport complex with the Kaliningrad Sea Commercial Port mostly, given in a special purpose Program of development SEZ in Kaliningrad region on 1998-2005. It stipulates a sustainable transport communication with other Russian regions for a going out its enterprises to the main transport ways via European countries, lionТs share of those belongs to Baltic states now.

Former prospered Gansean port, which will celebrate its 660th anniversary this year, in 1945-1991 functioned in the links of a state monopoly and centralization of foreign economy activity and was closed for foreign vesselsТ calling. However in 1996 there was a privatization, and it was opened for foreign vesselsТ calling. There were made a reconstruction, created a new port capacities, mastered a kinds of cargoes, line navigation, ferry lines. Nowadays the Sea Commercial Port of Kaliningrad has 8 million tonnes year capacity with a well developed railway network and direct main motor roads.

During visit to Kaliningrad the First Deputy of Russian government B. Nemtsov a Working Group was created, which elaborated a measures for raising of its competitiveness. But it is not working until 8th article of RF Federal law "On Special Economic Zone in Kaliningrad region", and it is necessary to change a RF law "On a value-added tax". In a plan of that working group there was stipulated also a transit transportation of cargoes by container trains. Only state is able to save and support a foreign trade flows for national transporters and ports, however now a half of foreign trade cargoes are handling through the ports of Baltic states and Ukraine, losing for it 600 million dollars yearly. Russia firmly intends to switch over these flows to its own new constructing ports on the Baltic Sea. But it is necessary donТt forget about 1st and 9th CreteТs Transport corridors passing via Kaliningrad. We should ask the question to be or not Russian transit via the port of Kaliningrad by words of Peter the Great decree devoted to Russian Fleet creation, which 300th anniversary we have had celebrated not so far.

Intensification of a world economic and financial crisis have decreased an oilТs demand. Due it at a world market had appeared the surplus of oil with an oil price reduction. That circumstance and a Russian own crisis influenced to Kaliningrad oil industry workers undoubtedly. Our special correspondent A. Korshunov asked Deputy General Director of Open Stock Company LUCOIL-KaliningradmorneftТ A. KhublТdikov to comment this situation.

Corr.: Tell, please, firstly, some about history of oil industry development in region.
- An oil extraction in Kaliningrad region was begun in 1972 for a domestic market use of former USSR with railroad delivering to DrogobychТs (West Ukraine) oil processing plant till 1995. But 3 years ago its export was re-oriented to West market, and oil processing plant in Gdansk (Poland) is our main customer of all 700 000 tonnes yearly extracted.

Corr.: What are the reserves of Kaliningrad oil and what time are they for?
- Land oil reserves are estimated in region for about 10-15 million tonnes on the depth 1900-2400 m with 20 years timing.

Corr.: Despite of an imposing land reserves are there any concrete programs of conservation and development of oil industry in Kaliningrad region?
- We have been elaborating oil extraction project D-6 of oil-field Kravtsovskoe in a Russian economic zone of the Baltic Sea at 22 km from coast distance, depth 25-30m, opened in 1983, with estimated reserves of 22-24 million tonnes. It is suitable for high quality petrol manufacturing.

Corr.: Give us, please, more detailed information about technical and economic sides of this project.
- We are planning two stages of works. First is a prospect oil-well drilling at the vertical 1500 m depth and under horizontal corner of 80 degrees at the 2000 m depth. Oil-well drilling works will be maked by Polish state enterprise Petrobaltic in summer 1999. Second stage is operational oil-well drilling and mine workings. Realization of a project is planning during 15 years with a 10 million tonnes extraction, its twice increasing and 400 new working jobs. By the way, one more oil-field with estimated reserves of approximately 1 million tonnes was discovered there.

Corr.: What are the expenses of D-6 and who will be finance them?
- Expenses are estimated 200 million dollars with a 6-7 years period of recoupment. We are looking for Western countries as investors, possible it will be Petrobaltic.

Corr.: Tell us about the nearest tasks of LUCOIL.
- First of all it is expansion of a petrol stations net and a development of a building constructions plant in Izhevskoye.

Corr.: And finally a traditional question. Have you any problems now and what are they?
- First of all it is a world oil prices decrease from 16-17 to 9 USD for barrel. We have to sell our high quality Kaliningrad oil for 10-10,5 USD for barrel. Due that we have to find the ways of an expenses decreasing by the planning of an oil-pipe-line building for connecting of extraction place with an oil sea port terminal, for example, in Baltijsk or Svetly. Besides, it will be better for our ecology.

Doctor Kh. L. Bet (translation from German)
The ToynbyТs paradigm about "Challenge and Response" in this case is a common condition and essential factor of development possibilities for the Port of Hamburg and other world sea ports equally.

What are a typical features of these tendencies?

  • - A change of enterprises structure and a shares of a market due to privatization and commercialization;
  • - Labour-intensiveness reducing and simultaneous industrial processes capital capacity rising;
  • - MarketТs structures change with a change and intensification of industrial processes and service spectrum expansion;
  • - Continually strengthening competition under its expansion;
  • - Considerable loyalty change to the place of production with an activity transforming to the inner areas of country;
  • - Demand and offer globalization.

The port of Hamburg has been approaching now in a shipment volume to a line of 80 million tonnes. In 1998 through the port passed for about 77 million tonnes of cargo with 10 million tonnes river vessels additional cargo. Last figure qualifies the port of Hamburg as a considerable German river port.

Sea transhipment is expected to be growth from 4 to 5 % with a containerization degree of 90% and its increasing to 3,6 million TEU, been the 7th in a worldТs list. The port of Hamburg transformed through 6 places from 1985 in it and had won the shares of market at the other ports.

A demand growth to approximately 5 million tonnes is forecasting in a period to 2005 for the port of Hamburg. It is a challenge for the portТs answer.

The port of Hamburg sees its perspective positive development in the next factors:

  • - the portТs universality with a width and depth spectrum service expansion;
  • - activity expansion in the inner continent areas under portТs management reservation;
  • - considerable long-term potential of growth in an inner continent areas, mostly in Eastern Europe, with a transport connection to the port of Hamburg;
  • - the presence of a high local demand in a Hamburg region itself;
  • - major capacities expansion(deeping the ElbeТs fairway, project of Altenvender terminal, expansion of Valterskhoph terminal, tunnel under the Elbe forth tube construction);
  • - effectiveness of an organizational structure, the only in comparison of other ports.

Not only the port of Hamburg has been searching the connections with a whole world, but it finds them to Hamburg. There are for about 100 consulate representations here, approximately 1000 foreign companies are situated here or have affiliated ventures or representations functioning here. A functions of foreign trade centre and simultaneously transport knot are the necessary requisites of positive further development.

Oleg Sadykhov, Maritime Industry editor
The fishing field of Russia nowadays is in a deep crisis. According to the analysis, a process of fishing fleet financial reducing was gradual within 2-3 years. Thus it is necessary to ask for its problems from its companies heads for their lack of administrative abilities and incompetence in a management and reorganization of the state property. Nearly all had been recognized a haste and erroneous of privatization due to that, main principle of Russian privatization legislation "rob the robbed" remained from 1917. How to reanimate fishing industry of the Kaliningrad region? More right decision would be return to the state management 51% of all fishing enterprises, processing ventures and some part supplying enterprises through the way of repayment of shares. Another decision would be a speeded up bankrupt procedure of insolvent debtors enterprises with a purpose of a new ventures creation including stateТs. Some specialists consider the state control of fishing field will frighten a foreign investors. But during last 5-6 years the foreigners misgivings are more directed to unforeseen actions of heads and influential share holders. Some enterprises parasitism for an account of numerous small and medium ones raised yet of a highest level. A share holders of OSC Atlantrybflot and OSC Westrybflot begun to make some attempts of its reorganization, and the result will be seen in a nearest year. After an enterprises reorganization process, the state should distinguish a help to them in a links of their strategic development, which should have a permissible times fixed for ventureТs sustainable restoration. The state support must be reduced approximately through three periods one year long each to optimally admissible level. If an enterprise will not be able to develop normally during this period, the state has a right to demand on its use a property stayed as a debt obligations.

In a links of the fishing field state support a most capital investments will be need for a program of modern fishery and transport-refrigeratorТs fleet construction at the spend time standing Russian shipyards including Kaliningrad under scheme: owner + state (20% + 80%), with a loan during to 12 years of not more 15% per year in roubles. To regret, our native industry does not produce a high quality fish searching and fish processing equipment, so some foreign companies may help here with a long-term (7-12 years) equipment credits under the presence of a hull readiness. The next principal direction of the state fleet support is re-equipment of fishery vessels producing shops and coastal enterprises to the European Union standards.

A consumer demand for fish in Russia is rising now. Fishing companies try as before to realize frozen fish to the consumer directly through whole sale companies. So it is a problem of fish effectiveness use rising. Also a creation the principally new fish processing complex has a significant importance for the Kaliningrad region. It would persuade for rising of profitability not only the coastal enterprises, but fishing companies, including using of a Scandinavian neighbours technological reserves. It will permit to increase production delivering not in Russia only, but export successfully to other countries using the advantages of Special Economic Zone. Besides, it is necessary to restore as state enterprises a science-based fishery prospecting and catching instruments improvement companies. Some words to be said about trade distribution net. There is a new project of a Universal Fish Trade System, which will be published in a Fish MarketТs News journal N1 in February 1999. It is necessary to restore also a system of expeditionary fishery with an extent of the production export. One more important problem is a personnel, and the main efforts must be directed to specialists retraining and personnel system development. Most vulnerable place in a fishing industry operating is the capital outflow from our country through offshore companies, and one of the variants to prevent it is an introduction of a tariffs system.

Simanovich, professor, Ja. Kuzin, research worker, Kaliningrad State Technical University
A landings of the Kaliningrad fishing industry reduced from 750 000 tonnes in 1990-1991 to 220 800 tonnes in 1998. Fishing fleet reduced also from more 300 vessels in 1993 to 108 in 1998, small vessels reduced from 178 to 104. Besides, we lost a fishing districts abroad. Personnel reduced from 50 000 in 1991 to 14 000 people in 1998. Export volumes reduced on 3,1 million dollars in 1997, on 5,88 million dollars in a first quarter of 1998. These figures give rise to a question how we should reorganize fishing industry with its 30% industrial production in region? This problem can be solved in a complex only or using a special coordinated purpose programs. One of such programs is a Complex Purpose Program (CPP) of fish-breeding and fishery development in an inner reservoirs and in coastal waters of the Kaliningrad region, elaborated by a creative collective of our specialists.

CPP contains five essential blocks:

  • - Extraction of a raw materials ( fish and sea products).
  • - Manufacture of goods.
  • - Field marketing.
  • - Investments and innovations attraction to a field.
  • - Legislative and normative assurance.

The main purposes of a Program are:

  • - most full fish-breeding raw materials mastering of region with a local market fish production saturation and its export;
  • - Local landings rising to 80 000 tonnes by 2005 with a creation of a new jobs, rise of living standards in region and social tension reducing;
  • - maximum landings processing on a renewed technological base with a fish production assortment expansion for domestic and external markets realization.
  • - favourable investment climate creation in a sphere of fish-breeding and fishery, an additional financial funds attraction to regionТs economic, dying fishing villages and rural settlements revival.

Social and economic results of CPP realization will be:

  • - regional and local budgets incoming part considerable increasing;
  • - investment inflow increasing to the Kaliningrad region;
  • - jobs increasing at the enterprises, connected with a Program realization and in co-operating fields of industry;
  • - regional marketТs saturation of fish-breading and fishery production for the population real prices and its competitiveness increasing at the external markets.

In this case, it would be more useful a creation at regional administration the special fishing industry department, which will be represent its interests on a federal and international levels.

Olga Ryabova, UFTS manager
There are three critical points of the Kaliningrad fishery enterprises state after a finishing 1998 season:

  1. No one venture can able to confirm their liquidity to investors and their actives profitability does not allow to pay in time on current loans.
  2. Deficiency of professional manpower and the all levels qualified managers.
  3. An absence or poor taxation and financial planning and many other.

The landings for 1998 are less than last year, partial due to mackerel and herring quotas reducing, and to companies poor fishery management. But a figures of red fish landings in the Irminger Sea became better for some fishing vessels due to new fish searching instruments and modernized trawl construction. Also due to fishery time losing there were a losses of mackerel 1500 tonnes and herring 1800 tonnes landings. Besides, there were some companies ignorant actions on a voyages time distinguishing and crews work on the contracts. Some vessels had been left fishery without permission for the rest to ports and getting salary.

Due to August crisis the activity of all companies practically in trade net was paralyzed. Native fishery companies have got some priority for certain time compared to foreign importers. But in case of the roubleТs stability Russian manufactures production is staying at the refrigerators during 2-3 months. High liquidity of the fish market based on a reasonable for consumer prices. So we have been returning to the price of offer, but the price of demand remains in a economic shade until.

Import fish supplying during a time of financial instability become a rather risk case. Therefore in a battle for Russian market foreign fish importers offer a price equal Russian producers, but better quality, and even less. But Russian fish manufacturers are desperately playing for the price rising and do not suspecting for playing against themselves. Fish reexport become unprofitable due to prices reducing to 130-160%, and Russian producers loses a possibility to get a currency for planned export deliveries. This year there was a fishery of large mackerel and herring for Russian market but not for Egypt, China and Korea, where traditionally sells a small fish, which simply was absent. Here are a prices offered by reexportes to Russian producers:

  • herring 300+ 250-270 USD
  • herring 250+ 230-250 USD
  • herring 200-300 200-230 USD

Concerning a mackerel, reexporters refused from commercial deals at the beginning of fishery else, suspecting marketТs fall not only in Russia, but in a world, and Kaliningrad producers have had a considerable losses.

Vladimir Laptikhovskiy, ATLANTNIRO research worker
Anybody knows Russian sea fishery is in a deep depression due to its reducing, considerable amount of tear and wear and fishery reducing abroad. Our consumer fish demands are 6 million tonnes, but our resources of inner reservoirs and economic zone can to provide the catch 3,5 only. This review was made on the data of ATLANTNIRO and TINRO research workers, Russian and foreign fishing press publications.

It is necessary to review a resources of our own vast economic zone and first of all the Far East seas and Pacific waters. Moreover, the part of DalТryba in a native production is for about 60%. There were many changes of environment in early 90s due to replacement of heat-loving species on cold-loving, salmons and birds migrations. Fish productivity there was reduced from 2.5 to 0.5 -1.4 million tonnes. But a situation will be probably stabilized, and the Japan Sea landings can be doubled. Unfortunately, Far East fishing industry is in serious crisis nowadays. It is specialized in a profitable crabs and shrimp mainly. This situation stipulates intensive exploitation of our unused resources by foreigners, Polish mainly.

In the South-East part of Pacific a native fishery finished simultaneously with scientific researches in 1992 due to remoteness from fishery bases and El-Niсo. Many cold-loving fishes died there of the temperature increasing on 4-5 degrees to norm, and reducing of landings is expected in 2000-2001.

In the North Russian fishery are herring, mackerel, blue whiting, northern shrimp, ocean perch in the Sea of Irminger and other species. In 1999 will be renewed the catch of capelin.

In Atlantic Ocean the main fishery is Central-East area with annual landings of 300-350 thousand tonnes (pilchard, scad, mackerel, white sardinella). In 1997 the catch of tuna was 4604 tonnes. A traditional specie of our catching with the reducing results is Argentine squid.

It is obviously, that Russian national fishery development is inconceivable without a large number new vessels building. As luck would have it, a change for the better is outlined here. This way Rybakkolkhozsojuz is planning to build 30 new trawlers by 2000 using a loan of 250 million dollars. New vessels will be distributed equally between Kaliningrad and Murmansk. Sevryba ordered in Denmark 4 new trawlers of new generation. First of them the Sevryba-2 was putted in operation in February 1998, the last will be launched in March 1999. Each vessel will be able to process 150 tonnes of raw fish and to produce 50 tonnes of finished products and 15 tonnes of shrimp production.

Victor Khmelnitskiy, Director of Ltd AQUAFID
Fish meal is valuable source of protein in a feed for animals, and various species of fish are used for it. It is necessary approximately 5 tonnes of fish for one ton meal producing. The main countries producing fish meal are Chili, Peru, Denmark, Norway, Iceland and USA. The table 1 shows its production in a first half of 1998. This year its manufacturing decreased by two times in a countries of South America Peru and Chili due to El-Niсo, which had been the reason for anchovy landings reducing.

European fish meal production had not been changed with a price for 1 ton during crisis and was 810 dollars for one ton. Nevertheless, the demand sometimes increased offering. Table 2 shows a fish meal consumption on the branches for November 1998.

Before 1991 the USSR was at a first ten fish meal producers. Nowadays Russia considerably decreased its production and lost a positions at the worldТs market. For example, during some months a fish meal was absent fully at a store-houses in Murmansk, Kaliningrad, Astrakhan, which leaded to poultry stopping production at some poultry ventures in Russia. By the way, Russian fish meal quality is usually worse than of South America and European. Before the 17th August crisis some Russian regions made a large-scale purchases of fish meal and concentrates in Europe. Before crisis the prices of fish meal were fluctuating from 3,6 to 3,8 roubles for kg, but they raised to 14-16 roubles for kg in early 1999.

Table 3 shows a change of fish meal prices in 1993-1998. But as investigations showed, the top of anomaly is ended, a landings of anchovy were increased, and a fish meal production have been increasing now with a reducing of prices. As analysts are prognosticated, it will be a stabilization of a fish meal market in a nearest 2-4 months.

Stanislav Lebedev, general director of firm Stanislav, Dmitry Metsaev, supplying manager
On September 1-4, 1998 in Chatem (Great Britain) FAO EASTFISH (Denmark) jointly with Institute of Natural Resources (NRI) and International Development Department of Great Britain had hold a Symposium on the theme: A Possibilities and Obstacles on the Fish Field Development Way of Eastern Europe and CIS Countries. There were discussed a questions about private fish business enterprises such as managersТ professional training, quality and hygiene maintenance providing, NASSR system, credits to fish industry ventures, fish and fish production marketing. A Heads of Fish Ministries (Committees) and big private firms directors of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Georgia and Turkmenistan took part in a work of Symposium. Russia was represented by firm Stanislav only.

There were distinguished a common tendencies of Eastern Europe fish field development. Due to political changes in these countries a fish landings reduced there by two times, import increased by 8 times, production expenses become doubled in comparison of West Europe fish sector. Above all, they have an old, bad equipment and poor financing. To problem of financing and investment was paid enough attention, but next conclusion can be done here: we can not persuade the others to invest money in our economic without doing it ourselves.

Big attention was paid to the questions of fish production quality and safety, particularly NASSR system according to EU, USA and Canada legislation. The questions of marketing, financing and fish field development were discussed also. By the opinion EASTFISH representative, there are necessary next transformations: fleet reconstruction; delivery and distribution of production change; value-added production manufacturing; aquaculture. In our opinion, most interesting was a report of David Klekhorn from Sea Fishing Industry Authority (SFIA) on fish production forward planning and its consumption stimulating. Their annual budget is 8,5 million dollars including 4,5 million expenses for advertisement. A special impression was of a London fish Bellingate Market, where 80% of fish production is living, fresh or chilled.

Grigory Veksler, OSK Zapryba Fishery Service Head
Red fish fishery in the Irminger Sea in 1988 was from the beginning of April to the middle of November. 75 fishery vessels took part in a spring fishery including 27 from Kaliningrad, 15-20 from Sevryba and CIS countries with a common reducing by 25-30% of 1997. Analyzing earlier seasons of 1996-1997, there were some negative moments such as landings reducing, considerable decreasing of all kinds vessels fishery productivity and a big reducing of fishery district. This tendency was in 1998 also, as shows a table N1 the results of everyday catching.

The next part of 1998 fishery was began from the first days of September, but the main group of a large vessels came on the first decade of October with a 17 Russian vessels participating of more tonnage. But due to the weather red fish fishery was stopped in a middle of November. As a practice of work shows, the vessels results were depended of a trawl construction, trawl plates and presence of a searching equipment. In 1998 were inculcated a new trawls 170/1260 and VK-2700 with a special net of domestic construction. A results of spring an autumn fishery seasons are showed at the table N2. The characteristic of trawls is showed at the table N 3. The best results of a large vessels were reached by Gloria-2560 and VK -2700 of firm Vaer. It is elaborated a modernized construction of trawl VK-2700 for a next season.

In 1999 it is possible a next fishery productivity decreasing due to reducing of a scientific potential and a search vessels absence. That is why a ship-owners must pay attention for thorough ships prepare in 1999 season on a technical state of the trawl complex and search equipment, and also for providing of a catching instruments both with a distance-piece trawl installation.

Alexander Korshunov, deputy editor of Maritime Industry
It is the name of a new pilot-boat, which was built on Kaliningrad pilotТs organization individual project at the shipyard ALMAZ in Saint-Petersburg in 1998. It was named in a memory of former Kaliningrad pilotТs organization head Pavel Sarzhin from 1968 to 1984, participant of the Great Patriotic War (WWII).

This new project AR 1601 arrived to Kaliningrad in October 1998. Its main qualities are high speed, manoeuvrability, reliability, safety and economy. Pilot-boat is equipped by two diesel engines VOLVO PENTA of 470 h.p both, speed 15 knots, full fuel stock 6000 litres. The boat saved half of 4 fuel tonnes planned during 3 days voyage on a distance 6000 sea miles from Saint-Petersburg. It is also equipped by up-to date navigational equipment and GMDSS and can operate in any time under any visibility. This boat replaced an old the Pilot-3, which served 16 years and is planning for service again after repair.

From the 1st of January Ltd Kaliningrad Sea Pilots will be an autonomous noncommercial organization according to IMO international requirements. In IX century by TsarТs decree pilots were proclaimed as an independent organization under stateТs supervision only. Kaliningrad Sea Pilots first made such a reorganization according to IV Conference of Russian Sea Pilots Association decision, and it would be look forward for the better pilotТs service with a help of such a modern pilot-boat of XXIth century.

Vjacheslav Shestakov, State Unitary Enterprise Kaliningrad Amber Company chief engineer Kaliningrad
Amber Company works more than 50 years at the largest in a world amber deposit, which have for about 90% of a worldТs reserves. Here also produced 300 kg an amber acid per month. It has many medicinal remedies, which were investigated in 1960-1980s by some Russian research institutes. In 1983 some medicinal plants produced on a base of amber acid medicine preparations. It also can used in industry and agriculture as a preparation for a agricultural cultures cultivation. Its useful properties and a fields of using are still the object of scientists and specialists intend attention. Our company is able to provide due to its capacities and reserves all wide demands for an amber acid not only in our country, but abroad.

Vladimir Baranov, departmentТs head of the regional administration central economic board.
An amber-field of our region nowadays goes through a difficult period due to its production sharp demandТs reducing. One way out of a situation on the specialists opinion would be minerals helpful properties use, which accompanied with amberТs extraction. They are Kembric clays and glaukonite.

So glauconite would have been used as a complex long-term mineral fertilizer in agriculture (vegetable-growing, poultry)and fish-farming. And one more its actual use is as a filter under waterТs purification and even under medicinal (martsial) waters production. But there are necessary a futher industrial investigations for the filter instruments making. Regional administration is ready to render necessary support to all interested organizations and businessmen even with including into Complex Purpose Program of Amber-field Development or GovernorТs Program - 1000.

Victor Koshelev, The Deputy Head of Baltijsk Municipal District in Foreign Relations
The Country of Future Ч it is a name of Complex in Karlskrona (Sweden), situated at the place of former naval infantry military camp. There are a multylevel schools, experimental manufacture of telecommunication systems and rest hostel.
The Technolack in Savoya. So called a Technopark, created at a place of former French military air base. There is near it also a civil aerodrome, private aviation civil school and parachute school.

An idea, which I want to describe in this article, is very actual for a time of morbidness transformation from command and administrative to market economy. The purpose of this article is to offer to readers an idea of creation a Multipurpose Training and Recreational Centre on The Baltic Split.

The Baltic (Vislinskaja) Split is an unique creation of nature with its primary beauty, variety of flora and fauna. It is a peninsula 65 km long with 30 km of Russian part, width 300-1800 m and 4-5 km near Baltijsk. According to the Kaliningrad region law, it is possible to create here a local economic zones with an additional benefits for enterprises. A situation of the Baltic City District near the states of market orientation is very important for a development in a new economic conditions with a critic mass of businessmen. But it is necessary for them to study more than two hundred leading countries experience of economic development and its using in Russian conditions.

The Centre besides training, research and living buildings will be include a hydro-harbour, port for yachts, airport, hydro-airport, zone of nature, beaches, moorings with a border crossings and etc. For these purposes it is possible to use some former military objects. The main strategy is a training of a high quality market economy specialists with integration of educational process into a net of international education.

This Centre is suggested to create in a form of joint venture with open or closed stock company legislation. Its founders would have been a banks, higher educational establishments, large native or foreign enterprises.

Viner Opekunov, captain of long voyage
In the Arctic Ocean ...
The second summer season a research vessel the Academician Sergey Vavilov spent in Arctic at the Arctic Circle. An expedition was organized by Russian Academy of Sciences the P. Shirshov Oceanology Institute in a links of World Ocean federal program. It had been consisted of two parts - oceanological investigations under guidance of professor Ju. Ivanov and Sea Arctic complex expedition investigations under guidance of famous Arctic scientist P. Boyarskiy. A research staff consisted of 77 people. Oceanologists carried out a researches between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya and in Kara Strait.

As a result there were distinguished the ways of Arctic and North Atlantic water distribution in the Barents Sea, was described their hydrochemical structure under distribution on the sea surface. A special interest for all expedition participants were the Arctic landing researches including visiting island Vaigach after a tracks of previous famous DjeksonТs, SedovТs, BrusilovТs and PapaninТs polar expeditions.

One of the main expeditionТs task was a hydrology system and West Arctic climate history investigation during after ice-age period equally with two Atlantic waters stream branches history. It was also necessary to distinguish the base figures of the Barents Sea area with oil and gas exploitation ecological state, the Siberian rivers ice moving and etc. Nowadays UNO and interested coastal states prepare the Polar Codex as a measures complex for Arctic and Antarctic ecological safety.

Where live penguins
The sixth season annually our vessel goes for a cruise voyages with a tourists on board between South America and Antarctic as some foreign firms are specialized. Only during last season there were 9212 tourists including 867 delivered for 12 special short term cruises by our vessel. A special organization American Polar Society was formed in USA, which is published Polar Times journal and advertise literature. Its secretary Braiam Shumakher was as the lecturer on a board of our vessel.

An air temperature is heated to +7o C there and a severe nature returns to life. Within various time after World War II mainly in Antarctic were founded more than 40 research stations of many countries. Some of them are operated in summer only, the others are preserved, but we have had time to visit Argentines, Polish, British stations. The most lovely tourists visited place is an island Deseption with a hot water sources of +80-90o C. The beauty of Antarctic is wonderful in a clear sunny weather day. Among animals and birds there are seals, whales and penguins. Last are staying as an object of the most attention. There are some kinds of them: Imperial, Kings, Mackarony, Gentu, Chinstrep and others, which are a someone symbol of Antarctic.

And at last, we have been passing a famous Cape Horn in a Drake Passage of 450 miles width between Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, which was a high exam of professional training on sailing vessel with a right to have an ear-ring on a left ear as a symbol of sea ripeness, courage and bravery.

Victor Strjuk, scientific deputy director of the World Ocean Museum (Kaliningrad)
Candidate of Science in Geography On August 26-28, 1998, at the Central Maritime Museum in Gdansk (Poland) took place a regular Conference of International Council of Maritime Museums (ICCM). First time the Conference was in a country of East Europe, and firstly there took part a delegation of the World Ocean Museum (Kaliningrad).

International Council of Maritime Museums is an authoritative international organization established in 1972 and amalgamated more than 300 bodies from 50 countries, which renders every kind of assistance to formation of maritime museums, published a newsletter, arranges a conferences, exchange of exhibitions and personnel.

Maritime museums representatives of the Netherlands, Great Britain, USA, Australia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, France, Russia and other countries took part in a work of Conference. At a session devoted to the museums of Eastern Europe there were a reports from Polish museums and World Ocean Museum (Kaliningrad). A special attention was paid to historical vessels conservation questions and their restoration.

Concerning financial problems of museums, they are in all countries, and we also have a support from some organizations of Kaliningrad and looking forward our museum will be not only a Kaliningrad visit card, but of all Russian Fleet.

Some reports were devoted to new forms of museums work. They have been becoming now not only a place of historical subjects conservation, but the place of meeting people, education and rest. As a result of our participation in a Conference became an agreements about mutual work with a museums of Europe, USA and Australia. Next regular Conference of ICCM will be in September 1999 in Philadelphia (USA) where we also were invited.



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