SUMMARY 3 (8) 99
Each shipbuilder - five model
BMW assembling should not prevent to shipbuilding formation and development on the biggest shipyard of the Kaliningrad region Jantar . Such a conclusion may be done after the "motor-car enthusiasts" next attempt in turn to reanimate former automobiles' KIA assembling shop.
After a mighty KIA's failure they have been arranged a mighty show on assembling at the same workshops a splendid automobiles BMW. That all is fine, but what for to hurry so? This idea it is possible to failure before beginning to work yet. Essential document (business-plan) does not made yet, it is in thinking to prepare. And there is no confidence in these automobiles sales in Russian market. It is possible of course to sell them abroad. But in case of a Special economic zone disappearing in 2000 and not making a local economic zone on a shipyard's Jantar territory, all as it seems will remain in a memory as a good reminiscence.
But let's return to shipbuilding - they say soon at the shipyard will be placed some big orders for various ships building including naval. And there is a question if the shipyard may to manage these profitable orders.
Automobile-assembling enterprise gathered shipyard's very considerable industrial sites and having been continuing to expanse, and some workshops were closed fully.
And there are a "hopes" that soon it will not be a place for shipbuilders to make their work, even under a blue sky.
Who is ruling the ball?
We will be very obliged in case of somebody reply.
Maritime Board joint a seamen
At the end of July in a Palace of Culture of seamen there was the Kaliningrad public organization Maritime Board founding conference. In a nowadays conditions of fishery branch development fall and the fleet's role reducing in our sea region there sharply appeared an amalgamation necessity of all interested bodies in a public organization, which could become a real public force for regional sea complex interests lobbing.
The main tasks of the Maritime board are:
There are more than ten public organizations of a sea direction in a Kaliningrad region, and we are ready to cooperate with them. Under the Maritime Board there have been creating a sea charitable fund for veterans and invalids support such in "land" cities as Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and others.
The Maritime board is called to join all state and other bodies for maritime specialists civilized job market creation and jobless seamen assistance on a Russian and foreign fishing and transport vessels. The situation on a fleet is very anxious now due to state's support absence. Already in 1993 our fishery complex was thrown off at the 1962 level. In 1993 there were 360 vessels in our fleet, and in 1999 their number have been reduced to 100 with its wear rate 60%.
The Maritime Board intends to support regional administration Fishery Committee in implementation of justice quotas distribution system, creation of state investment mechanism for fleet's modernization and renovation.
The unique complex of maritime and fishing industry of Kaliningrad may be revive if to return a priority to a sphere of maritime industry, and exactly in this the Maritime board sees its main task.
Will be the Kaliningrad region the
part of Europe's Northern dimension?
Northern dimension (ND) - a common conception, suggested by Finland government with a European Union policy definition purpose due to situation changing in a North of Europe. The conception supposes an adequate measures elaboration on stable social and economic development guaranteeing in this region. Corresponding letter was sent to President of EC by the prime-minister of Finland in April 1997.
As a main task the authors of this initiative consider EU attention attraction to north policy, which on their opinion should include cooperation in the Baltic Sea region, the Barents Sea region, and other Euro-Antarctic regions, cooperation in a links of North Council, bilateral ties and a ties with neighbour regions. During conception elaboration there have been planning to display a work's long-term advantages with north regions of Europe including Russia's North-West huge energetic resources. There will not be broach a traditional subjects of security.
As a concrete measure Finland suggested to review EU documents concerning North.
Among the main principles and ideas suggested by Finns in a base of plan's actions preparation there can be named the next:
Proceeding from these priorities a program's elaborators have been defined the main cooperation directions:
EU dependence from external energy sources have been attaching a strategic importance to cooperation in the North-West of Russia natural resources elaboration.
Finland is not aspirate to a new institutional structure in a links of EU, but only improve coordination and full use available instruments. It is supposed ND will be of EU with Russia and associated countries relations integral part in order to combine EU policy with UBC, Northern Council of Ministers, Council of the Barents/Euro-Arctic region, Arctic Council, Khelcom.
It is most important to achieve a various sources of financing activity coordination and to expanse the role of TACIS and PHARE programs taking into account ND.
In ND conception there have been distinguished some additional aspects in intermediate report of European Commission in December 1998 :
There are stipulated the next directions of technical assistance programs realization for a frontier regions and for Kaliningrad region in particular:
So the Finns make an accent to negative factors concerning Kaliningrad region for the prevention with emphasis on administrative methods, but not for a mutually beneficial cooperation. They also say about the exceptions impossibility in border crossings for the Kaliningrad region citizens in connection with a future Baltic states joining to Shengen. Finns consider also, that the Kaliningrad region may be a chaotic breeding ground of violence. They want first of all to use ND as an experts on Russia with a most profit for them to orient EU programs in direction of oil and gas-fields exploitation, Russian North-West natural resources development to the commercial level.
Kaliningrad region is not in a sphere of business, cultural or other Finnish activity and even there is a competition in some directions, for example in a port economy development. They have planned before a 3 million $ financial support for technical and economical substantiation of container terminal construction in Baltijsk, but then refused in it. All it seems as not serious business intentions of Finnish partners.
There are only four ventures with a Finnish investments in the Kaliningrad region: Diamar Engineering, Baltfinn Maritime Agencies, Telemedia and Sekometal.
In that way a share of Finnish investments in Kaliningrad region economy is a highly insignificant and our turnover with Finland has been approaching to zero now.
In an our view ND conception is needed in a concrete definition with due regard for both Russia and its regions interests. Concerning the Kaliningrad region the most important have been remaining a task of favourable internal development conditions and negative consequences minimization for its population due to future EU expansion.
It is obviously this task should be solved in a more degree on the relations line Moscow-Brus sels and in a less degree in triangle Moscow-Hel sinki. Elaborators' merit is undoubtedly may be considered an attention attrac tion to quickly chan geable situation in the north part of Europe and for new relations construction between EU and Russia necessity. Finally the success of Northern dimension will be depend from concrete projects only, collected under this loud and highly successful sign. Possible reasonable strategy for Kaliningrad authorities would be careful situation tracking around ND and a concrete suggestions concerning regional needs and perspectives.
On foreign investments attraction to
On 3-4 June 1999 in Moscow under assistance of International Economists Union was All-Russian scientific-industrial conference "Rising of industrial production in Russia, development of interregional scientific-industrial cooperation, creation of a new working places in Russian regions".
A main attention there was made on economy real sector and native producer support. With that purpose there was marked a line to tax burden reducing and practice of development budget application.
Concerning investments Russia is far not first roles due to waiting position of foreign investors, which is caused by unfa vourable investment climate and prestige of our country, its high level of investment risks. Nowadays investments to Russian economy is only 1% of world including 0,5% to the real sector of economy.
In a total volume of investments accumulated a leading positions have an investors from Germany (36,3%), USA (15,1%), France (9,43%), Cyprus (9,15%), Italy (8,4%). In a total volume of accumulated direct investments the leaders are: USA (27,3%), Cyprus (24,8%), Great Britain (7,5%), Germany (7,5%), Netherlands (4,9%). Most attractive branches for foreign capital investments have been remaining - fuel industry 9 (oil and coal extraction and processing), food industry including fishery and tobacco articles producing), communication and trade.
Russian government's policy is aimed mainly to direct investments and to short-term speculating investments, which destabilize the state's financial and economic system. Nowadays in Russia there have been preparing some important legislative acts for favourable investment climate providing such as on foreign investments, on free economic zones, on concession contracts and others. There are some positive results after adoption of Federal law "On a Free Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad Region".
Experiment of the Kaliningrad region free customs zone functioning they suggest to use on their territories and others Russian Federation entities.
From 20 to 24 of September 1999 at the World Ocean Museum - central maritime museum of Russia on ocean's history study and its nature - was II International Conference on native oceanology history. 72 reports were planned at the conference, among more than 100 participants there were representatives of 31 organizations from 4 countries - Russia, Ukraine, Germany and Holland. There were published a theses of reports on Russian with resume in English. 42 reports have been listened.
The participants of the conference noticed a growing interest to oceonalogy history in our country, reports' high level and the timeless of conference holding in connection with 60th an ni versary of research vessel the Vitjaz' building and 50th anniversary of her first scientific voyage in a forestall of VII Congress on Oceano graphy History.
There was adopted a decision to appeal all scientific bodies researching ocean in Russia and abroad for help World Ocean Museum in Kaliningrad in its work on exposition creation about oceanology history and up-to-date oceanology and state scientific archives and museum's fund forming.
There was also adopted a decision about holding in 2003 in Kaliningrad on a base of World Ocean Museum the VII Congress on Oceanograhy History.
During the conference in a library of World Ocean Museum was an exhibition opening LAND, SEA, AND PEOPLE, which was organized under UNESKO support.
It is known that in a coastal areas there live for about 60% of world population, and in 2025 there will be approximately 75% population of Earth, and it is necessary a complex managing by the coastal areas - it was shown at the exhibition.
Responsibility for improper pilot's
pilotage of the vessel
This article also is devoted to Maritime Merchant Navigation Codex (MMNC) discussion, which was adopted by the State Duma of Russian Federation in April 1999.
According to 103 MMNC article the organization, which worker is pilot, who carried out a pilotage of the vessel, is responsible for a damages, caused to the vessel due to improper pilotage of the vessel by a pilot's fault. But its responsibility is limited. Firstly, full compensation of damages is stipulated according 103 article to pilotaged vessel only. Secondly, the pilot's organization responsibility in accordance with an article 104 may be limited by sum, which is equal to ten fee for pilot's pilotage. In my opinion, the pilot's fault it is necessary to prove in a court, and this should be concretize in Maritime Merchant Navigation Codex. And such a practice there is in a majority of countries. But it is not possible to say that a new law is enough perfect. Its articles 103, part 2 of article 104 require a considerable revision and a strict definition of improper pilot's pilotage.
Law and order guard in ... a sea full-dress
It is a usual evidence in a most countries of Western Europe not only distinguish into their structures in a organized way, but and in outward appearance with a special sea full-dress uniform. And our Russian water militia has no such a uniform.
Nevertheless in Russia there was such a good tradition from 60-s and till to February revolution 1917.
River police was founded on the 27 of June 1867 (old style) in Saint-Petersburg with an annual budget not more 30 thousand roubles for an account of city. They have had a special sea uniform and officers - naval uniform with a police symbolic. Their additional duty was to save the people on waters, to stand guard the vessels moorings from trumps and etc. From 1868-1869 water police have begun to examine rowing and transport vessels. In 1885 there was firstly increased its personnel, and in 1887 its competence was extended also on sea canal and the new port of Saint-Petersburg.
In 1885 the post of capital water police chief firstly was entrusted to the Saint-Petersburg port superior with a more than hundred personnel, 11 steam vessels and 35 rowing whale boats and boats. Then a water police units have been appeared in some other port cities - Nizhny Novgorod (1882), Rybinsk (1885). Approximately in this period there have been created port police in Saint-Petersburg, Riga, Odessa and Nikolaev.
Role of the Baltic Fleet in A third
Created by Peter the Great in 1703 the Baltic Fleet during 296 years of its existing took part and won 24 big sea battles. The Baltic navy men made a lot of long voyages and great geographic discoveries. In 1945-1956 the Baltic Fleet solved a state problem on mine-sweeping in a navigation rebuilding on the Baltic.
The USSR and Warsaw Treaty breakdown and a swift military and political reorientation of former allies and nearest neighbours (Poland, Germany, Baltic states) to a constant NATO's membership have lead to cardinal geostrategical changes in the Baltic sea zone. After our troops and forces leaving Poland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in 1991-1994 the Baltic Fleet lost a considerable share of more important basing elements, shipbuilding and ship-repair yards, barrack and dwelling houses. Fleet's basing system (Kaliningrad and Leningrad regions) is separated by the Baltic states territories.
Since fleet's forces recovery from neighbour countries till current time there were reduced 60 thousand people including 16 thousand officers, mitchmans and praporchciks. The fleet was reduced in three times on ships and military personnel. Fleet have filled up by officers staff vacancies on 98% including less 30 age - 26,2%, 30-40 age - 52,5% , 41-45 age - 17% and 0,3% only - elder 50. Approximately 105 of officers have been graduated from military academies, but it is only a half of that we need. 81% of officers have a high education after graduating of military and civil high establishments. 243 officers took part in a military operations including 225 in Afghanistan and Chechen republic.
An average age of the large units fleet's commanders is 47 years, commander of the regiment 43, in naval aviation 42 years. Ships commanding officers age of 1-2 ranks kinds is approximately 35 years, 3rd rank - 31 year. 166 young officers arrived to fleet in 1999 and 259 else will arrive soon.
Military and geo-political consequences of NATO's expansion in the Baltic region and Central Europe are until a potential danger for Russia. For example in a Polish city Shcecin (Poland), which bordered with the Kaliningrad region there have been completing a united Polish-German army corps North-East, and other variants of NATO's military presence expansion there having been discussed on a territories of new block's members.
A problem of the Kaliningrad and Leningrad regions sea coast defence is considerably raising nowadays due to a necessity Russia's state, political and economic interests safeguarding on the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Fleet was first in Russian Military Forces large commands, which have reformed its organizational structure to new territorial large command including naval forces, naval aviation, forces and air defence facilities, land and coastal forces, united operational, technical and supplying bodies.
Nowadays the Baltic Fleet has 99 various ships, 6 submarines, 180 combat and military transport aeroplanes and helicopters - Su-27, Su-24M, An-26, Mi-24, Mi-8, mobile anti-aircraft rocket systems S-300 PS, approximately 850 tanks, 550 rocket systems, 350 artillery systems, 33200 military personnel with 25000 of them in the Kaliningrad region. 30 foreign inspections have been worked on the fleet within last years did not noticed any we signed international agreements violations. The Baltic Fleet does not threaten anybody, it is only ensure reliably Russia's safety on the Baltic and is a stability factor in region. Command and staff exercise of the Baltic Fleet in June 1999 under Minister of Defence marshal Igor Sergeev command was an exam of its general quarters.
In a peace-time the Baltic Fleet additionally to its military tasks has a functions connected with a saving at sea, mines danger, dangerously explosive subjects liquidation, possible emergency situations, peace-creative actions of the Partnership in the name of peace Program, official visits, law-enforcement agencies assistance in public order maintenance, ecological safety at sea. Cooperation with a fleets and armies of other states is in a links of the Partnership in the name of peace Program in a form of mutual combat training. In 1994-1999 the forces of the Baltic Fleet took part in joint exercises more than 300 times. During 1990-1999 a ships, vessels and yachts of the Baltic Fleet 786 times visited 85 foreign ports of 35 Europe, Asia, America and Africa states. More than 50 000 crew-members visited foreign ports and more than 22 000 of foreign citizens visited our ships. Ports and airports of the Fleet were visited by foreign ships and aeroplanes 76 times. We were visited by 109 foreign ships and 9 aeroplanes with a 9 500 crew-members. The fleet was visited by more than 90 high state military and civil persons and more than 90 other delegations.
In our opinion the future cooperation ideal variant could be special international structure creation for all the Baltic activity regulation in a form of interference system between the Baltic Sea navies flag plots, mutual information about combat ships and submarines activity in order to prevent a dangerous situations at sea. As a three hundred years ago the Baltic Fleet was, is staying and will be of Russia's security on its west boundaries, a forward defence bastion of our state. The Baltic Fleet is the base of military and political stability in west region, in which all the Baltic states are interested. And it is there a historical mission of the Baltic Fleet.
Today's depressed market contrasts with the situation in the late 1970-s and early 1980-s. Then, over 250 FAC were sold to NATO and pro-Western navies in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Latin America, with French shipbuilder Constructions de Mecaniques de Normandie (CMN) initially emerging as market leader. Its position was later challenged by German yard Lurssen Werft and some others. This buyonant period for Western shipyards was pre-dated by the proliferation of Soviet-produced Project 183R Komar-class and Project 205 Osa-class FAC in the navies of the then Warsaw Pact and other Soviet client states.
Indeed, it was the October 1967 destruction of the Israeli destroyer Eilat by 'Styx' anti-ship missiles fired from an Egyptian Komar-class vessel which set off the explosion in FAC sales.
This trend was subsequently reinforced by the achievements of Israeli Sa'ar-class vessels during the 1973 Yom Kippur war. The concept of a small, nimble yet heavily-armed surface combatant, capable of punching well beyond its weight and reach, gained widespread acceptance from navies primarily concerned with coastal protection. Viewed by many as a cost-effective equaliser to more conventional blue-water naval forces, its appeal proved irresistible.
Now, however, the mantle once occupied by the FAC is being increasingly passed over to a new generation of large ocean going corvettes and more lightly armed offshore patrol vessels (OPVs).
This is not a role for which the FAC is suited, as the South African Navy's experience with its Warrior-class FACs has visibly demonstrated. In contrast, corvettes and OPV's typically displacing 1,000 tonnes or more, confer several significant benefits, including greater stability and much improved seakeeping, far more capacious accommodation spaces, and increased fuel capacity for extended endurance, and their armament may be somewhat less.
The performance of the FAC in recent hostilities is the second major factor forcing a reappraisal of their utility. In particular, the 1990-91 Gulf War provided a stark illustration of the limitations of the genre. The almost wholesale destruction of ex-Kuwaiti TNC 45 and TNC 62 vessels pressed into service by Iraq during the war was the most recent case in point, with helicopter-launched anti-ship missiles taking a heavy toll. These losses, and those suffered by Lybia in March 1986 and Iran in April 1988 at the hands of the US Navy, have served to nullify the notion of the FAC as a low-priced, pocket-sized counter to conventional naval forces. Nevertheless, there are still a number of navies, who find that the FAC remains relevant to their specific operational environment and associated concept of missions. These are principally forces with relatively narrow straits, channels or chokepoints to defend, and those that can exploit favourable coastal geography. Areas in the Baltic Sea and the eastern Mediterranean fall into this category. The global supplier base can be bracketed into four segments:
In some cases, a FAC build-stream has been the first tangible output of the embrionic naval construction capability. While new-build opportunities remain scarce, several navies are looking to give their existing FAC fleets a new lease of life by undertaking comprehensive combat system modernisations. Norway, for instance has begun a programme to refit to its 14 Hauk class with a new combat system, the South African Navy is updating a number of its ageing Warrior-class FACs with new command and fire-control systems, Singapore's six Victory-class units are receiving the Barak-1 point-defence missile system, while Brunei's three Waspada-class vessels are receiving new tactical displays and fire-control equipment.
Go round or through canal?
Such a question always arise to captain of each vessel sailing from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and vise versa. This way it is possible to reduce on 22-24 hours in case of sailing, if it is not to sail around Jutland peninsula and to pay and to use Kiel's canal. Seamen call it "ditch" between them. Its official name is Nord-Ostsee Kanal (NOK ) 98,7 km long, with width - 162-165 metres and for about 11metres depth.
Canal's lock lifts are suitable for a vessels to 235 meters long, 32,5 width and to9,5 metres draft. Payment for a vessels to 999 tonnes BRT is 2 000 DM, cargo ship to 10 000 BRT - to 8 000 DM or approximately 80 DM for each kilometer. Payment is stipulated even for a military ships. Maximal permissible speed through canal is 15 km per hour. The time of passageway is 7-8.5 hours. Daily traffic capacity of the canal is 250 vessels.
Canal's building was begun in 1887 by kaiser Vilhelm I, the ceremony of its opening was in 1895 with a kaiser Vilhelm II. At the beginning of XX century canal have been widened for a large military ships sailing possibility. It is interesting a fact that an attempts of such a canal buildings here were in 1391-1398, 1628, 1784 (Aider canal). Total number of personnel for a functioning of canal is 2500 people. Besides that there are some other services - 14 ferry canal crossings, 330 pilots and more 100 fee collectors.
In 1998 through canal passed 37589 vessels or on 1,7% more than in 1997 with a prevailing of small and medium ones due to rising payment for a large vessels, and losses for Germany from 48 million DM in 1984 arose to 81 millions DM.
State and prospects of Russian fishery
in Central East Atlantic
There are many various discussions about a crisis state of fishery nowadays. As a result total Russian landings have been reduced in two times, individual consumption per capita reduced from 20 to 9 kg. Also there have been rose unemployment among fishery branch workers. At the conferences and meetings in July 199 in Juzhno-Sakhlinsk, Council of Federation and Russian Government in Moscow a questions of current fishery state and its improvement were discussed. At these high forums there have been noticed that it is necessary to consider a biological resources of Russian sea economic zone as a strategic and having been important significance for a state's food safety. But in a purpose of their preserving and more rational usage it is necessary some reorientation of native fishery and its development in World ocean's other areas. It may be not so extensive utilized an economic zones of other states and open zones of World ocean. Central East Atlantic (CEA) is one of such most perspective areas, which includes a zones of West Africa states, with a high pelagic species bio-mass level and annual total landings for about 3 million tonnes. Annual catches of the Soviet fleet in this area till 1991 was approximately 1 million tonnes by 100 large trawlers and for about 150 seiners. But in 1994 Russian landings in this area was 167 thousand tonnes, in 1996 - 384 thousand tonnes with a vessels number 20-25 ones.
Such a situation may lead to our fleet's access to coastal zones of African states and even a full exclusion from these areas.
This article is also devoted to Russian fishery possibilities development in areas of Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea (Conakry) and Sierra-Leone.
But to our regret from 1991 intergovernmental agreements USSR have been stopped their action and not prolonged nowadays. An access there is possible only on a commercial term. Moreover, we don't make from 1990 an investigations of resources condition in this area, but it did Norwegians. A certain interest may be regarded some open part of CEA areas to the north from Canary Islands and to south from Azores.
So, a whole number of CEA areas may be regarded as a perspective for an expansion, development or restoration of Russian fishery there.
Squid's fishery in the Falkland Islands
Economic zone of the Falkland Islands is an important fishery area with a total landings 200-250 thousand tonnes per year with a squids prevailing. Domestic's fleet share is 30 000 tonnes, and the other part is on a license base by fishery fleets of foreign states. Pick of landings was in 1988-1989 - 394-426 thousand tonnes and due to Argentinean squid or illex (Illex argentinus) abundance. Other squid's fishery species there are: Loligo vulgaris, Martialia hyadesi. Government of the Falkland Islands gives out some types of licenses for a squid's fishery - B, C, G, X. Former USSR countries did not received them before except one license type B for one Ukrainian vessel in 1994, which catch was only 12 tonnes, and this practice was stopped. And the only license was given out in a research purposes to the Kaliningrad research vessel the Atlantida in the same year.
In this article an authors give more detailed information about all above mentioned species of squids in this area and the tables of their landings in various years and special conditions of their catch. They make a conclusion - that area is a perspective for a native fishery, but it is very difficult for us to give a license due to Falkland's governments prefers more proved partners.
Scientific and experimental base of
MariNPO. Modern elaborations
This experimental and constructor's bureau was founded in 1963 and within 35 years of its activity became the leading organization of fishery branch on catch equipment's creation. Nowadays it has a personnel 130 people. The results of its scientific investigations and constructor's elaborations are in many various publications with a number of 800. There were more than 400 inventions, most part of which have been realized. In 1979 there was constructed for experiments a Water canal.
In our opinion there are all possibilities for a creation on its base information and educational centre of industrial fishery engineering for students and specialists not only from Russia, but and other countries. We have a project of such a centre and search all interesting bodies and persons for its realization.
Guarantor of navigation's safety on
Russia is a great sea power. Its coasts wash waters of 12 seas and 3 oceans. Russian Hydrography Service was founded in 1827 by emperor Nikolay I. Nowadays it have been representing by the Chief administrative board of navigation and oceanography of RF Defence Ministry and its regional representatives on a fleets.
Hydrographic service of the Baltic Fleet now has two main tasks :
Nowadays in a system of navigational equipment there are 5 radio-navigational systems, 38 lighting and 9 radio becons, 540 navigational sea-marks and for about thousand floating warning marks with a more than 300 people personnel. Hydrography Service has also a cartographic and hydrometeorology departments.
In this article the author tell about a history of Hydrography Service from the times of Peter the Great to our days. After the World War II there is more fruitful international cooperation of the Baltic Fleet in a field of navigational equipment. In 1957 it became a member of International Lighthouse Services Association (MAMS), in 1961 it was the first, who transformed its floating warning marks to a new unified system MAMS - region A. In 1993 the Hydrography Service of the Baltic Fleet under Russian Federation's government decision without a payment transferred to the Baltic states a considerable part of the navigational equipment. Nowadays water areas 18356 square km of our responsibility 23 420 square km ecological zone of the Baltic Sea require an additional investigations for more reliable navigational safety, but we have a shortage in fi nan cing. In a current time there are a variants of creation additionally the state Hydrography Service on the Baltic Sea - West regional administrative board of the state Hydrographic Service. And a Hydrography Service of the Baltic Fleet was and nowadays is until the only guarantor of a navigational safety on the Baltic Sea.
Defence from corrosion of sea vessels
In this article an authors notice, that according a world fleet's accidents statistic a most dangerous type of engineering constructions destruction are brittle destruction. They happen suddenly and distribute with a high speed. Their reasons are defects of the corrosion type corrosion-tired cracks. Such effects arise frequently in a hull's constructions in an area of the ballast tanks with a negative influence to an environment.
According to IMO SOLAS regulation II-1/14-1 part 6 it is necessary to stipulate a corrosion prevention systems (CPS) in a sea water ballast tanks of new loader and oil tankers. Technical maintenance of CPS should be include in a vessel's maintenance common plan. So in a nearest years there will be toughen requirements to all types vessels' ballast tanks corrosion defence.
Marine Transport Central Research Institute elaborated a special document - Recommen da tions on vessels corrosion defence the ballast tanks and prison accommodations - JAKUT 25-042-97. There are having been checked on practice systems of sea vessels' ballast tanks inner surfaces painting on a base of native and import varnishing-painting materials and their usage methodic.
Technical oceanology: applied aspects
Technical oceanology is a new direction ocean's study. It is a direction of scientific basis and realization of an oceanology investigations technical and methodic providing optimal choose. The objects of its attention are a technical equipment complexes and technologies. For a maritime fishing science its direction has if not more significance than for a fundamental science.
Modern technique of ocean and its resources studying and investigation is very difficult. Some imagination about technical oceanology equipment complex may be done on a figure 1. Such a technique may be produced on a special ventures only under wide cooperation in a scale of a whole country. Nowadays there are four main directions of technical oceanology : asdic systems, underwater observation equipment, airspace equipment and integrated informational systems.
Progress of a technical oceanology goes by two ways:
In PINRO within some years having been doing a work on creation of an instrumental complexes for a World ocean resources investigation. There have been made such a systems:
Waste utilization from the squids dressing
or to their question use in medicine and fishery revival
Works in this direction have begun else in 1985 in West basin vessels intensive activity in South-West Atlantic and have continued in 1990-s and despite difficult economic situation and USSR disintegration. But in 1997 it was stopped and would be seem temporary. In the Far East there was a revival of Komandor squid fishery.
Perspectives of Russian squid fishery are favourable as our scientists consider due to their considerable number and a possibility of annual 50% resources landings without violation of their reproduction.
Waste after squids' dressing is an oil raw material and may be used in various of medicine. For example - a squid's oil, Polien, Polien with additions, Eikonol, fish oil in capsules, Kal ma vit and some others. Squid's oil, for example, it is possible to use under thermic burns, ulserous ill and other ills.
Works in AtlantNIRO, which have been done, are initial, and it is necessary to continue them, but an absence of fishery and a source of financing does not permit to expanse these investigations. So, waste of squid's dressing involving in production undoubtedly will raise and economy of fishery.
DEMAND ON QUALIFICATION
In a Soviet times fishing industry was one of the economy's leading branches. A main significance in its development have had a scientific and educational institutions.
Within many years Russian fishery fleet worked really in all areas of World ocean, and there was no doubt with a high professionalism of Russian fishermen. But a fleet's reduction have been influenced to the training and retraining processes, and many fishermen have been stayed without job.
But it appeared, that Russian personnel training system has a high mark at a foreign ship-owners, and a thousands of Russian seamen have been working on a foreign vessels nowadays. Kaliningrad is one of the main maritime specialists training centres.
A special attention to that have a Greeks, Poles and Germans. Now such an attention have Norwegians also, because 90% of their seamen are from China and the Philippines. But our specialists are possible even better, but it was necessary to have a special certificates, adopted by Norwegian the Telenor. But such a Centre have been created on a base of the State Fishery Academy, which have received all necessary certificates after Norwegian specialists inspection. And after that there was signed an agreement with a Norwegian company Singa ship, which has 200 ones of fleet. They intend to form the tanker's crews from No vo rossiisk, and a crews for cargo and passenger fleets from a Kaliningrades. They are planning to change a total approximately 10 thousand specialists and they prefer Kaliningrad opposite Gdansk and Riga.
Phenomenon of Helsinki
Having been a sea city Helsinki is undoubtedly one of the beautiful European capitals. There are the main landmarks of European history in it. Helsinki was founded in 1550 by Swedish king Gustav Vasa as a port in opposition to Revel (Tallinn) in a struggle for a leadership in the Baltic. The port of Helsinki is a main cargo and passengers' port of Finland and one of the biggest on the Baltic Sea. In 2000 there will begin a new harbour for port in the east of city. 546 thousand of more than 5 million Finland's population live here at the territory 185 square km, and a Big Helsinki has for about million population. In 1917 city became a capital of independent Finland.
In 2000 Helsinki will be celebrate its 450th anniversary and will become one of the European cultural centres. It remembers Saint-Pe ters burg, but in opposite it is very clean and well-groomed.There are many sightseeings in Helsinki such as Suomenlinna fortress, Market's square, the Presidential Palace, Tempelliaukio church carved out of a rock, Lutheran Cathedral, Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral, Olympic stadium, many theatres, museums and monuments, metro and others. Finns keep in order all buildings and monuments connected with a Russian period. From 1995 Finland is a member of the European Union. Helsinki calls itself the Daughter of the Baltic, and rightly so for a large northern sea provides the lifeblood of Finland's capital.
The Academician Kurchatov - all
was as if yesterday
In was really a floating research institute with 125 m long and 24 laboratories and comfortable conditions for a crew and research personnel. There were 50 scientific voyages during her history, participation in a lot of big international projects. Famous Russian singer and poet Vladimir Vysotskiy devoted to her one of his songs. Las t scientific voyage of the vessel was in 1989, and after USSR disintegration there were many passenger voyages for a fishermen and tourists till the 18th of August 1998. After that time the vessel nobody needs. And there is a new hop - her using as a hospital vessel and then the vessel may be in such a quality in Kaliningrad, and we are waiting the continuation!
Water tourism and yachting development
prospects in the Kaliningrad region
World water tourism and yachting industry have been developing intensive with a 3 billion $ turnover and hundred of thousands involving in it people. Ka li nin grad region has an unique possibilities for such industry development. But the infrastructure of such industry is absent nearly nowadays here. In 1996 to the 300th anniversary of the Russian Fleet in Kaliningrad have been arrived 24 yachts from 6 countries, which a bright and beautiful holiday for all citizens.
There is a conception of water tourism and yachting development in the Kaliningrad region. It stipulates rebirth and reconstruction of existing basing system, yachting service elements creation, native yacht and small ship-building development, establishing in the Kaliningrad region a special marine-ports with a high level service for the rest on water. 1st stage of this conception is creation in Pribrezhny the Kaliningrad city water tourism and rest centre on a base of yacht's harbour. A next stage may be opening of city center for foreign and native yachts in summer navigation period. It is possible to displace there for about 30 yachts or 60 yachts in two lines. Special facilities construction for such a step in not necessary a big expenses. Moreover, it may be an additional receipts to the city's budget. But it is necessary to lift a twin-tier bridge 1-2 times a day for 10-15 minutes as in Holland and other countries. Now we have one of the last places in a world per capita on engine and sailing boats among sea countries. Kaliningrad and Baltijsk have a very good prospects in this direction development. A special attention needs the Kaliningrad yachts shipyard Pelikan, which experience would be a base for competitive specialized enterprise on yachts and small vessels designing and construction. But it is necessary to give this enterprise some privileges on its difficult way in the making. Moreover, its cooperation with such a ventures from European countries would implement to this sphere a new current technologies. This conception realization will permits for Ka li nin grad to be a civilized, modern and beautiful sea city and will attract many tourists here.
Translation - Vladimir Pay-Gorskiy