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G. Dykhanov

The fishery industry of the Kaliningrad Region in many respects has lost its leading position among the most important branches of the regional economy. Its development remains one of the priorities of the regional progress. At present, it is vital to define the future influence of Russia joining WTO on the fishery industry, and measures of support and protection.

Nowadays, a fishery complex is just a group of enterprises of different economic sectors, such as fishery, food, and machine-building industries, but close in their functions. Their relations are brought to intersectoral co-operative and economic connections. Thus, possible consequences of Russia joining WTO for fishing and processing enterprises are totally different.

Joining WTO creates certain prerequisites for raising competitive capacity of the branch under some favourable conditions such as a clear strategy and concerted action of the fishery companies, as well as the support policy for the branch of the Russian government.

Unfavourable conditions are expected in a significant decrease of fishing enterprises connected with the flow-out of finance to other branches having no connection to fishing.

The major part of fish processing companies are within the food industry. They are totally dependent on fish suppliers and cannot plan their production activities on their own. Outdated and inefficient manufacturing capabilities do not provide for the quality level required for successful competition in the foreign market. The enclave location of the Region leads to high transport costs while delivering fish products to the main territory of Russia which finally results in low competitiveness of production in the national market. After having joined WTO, there will arise a possibility to decrease customs duties for importers of all Russia. Thus, a combination of low customs duties on imports with high internal expenses will inevitably lead to a loss of the national market for the fish processing companies of Kaliningrad and cause mass bankruptcy of the regional enterprises. In order to prevent such a scenario of the Kaliningrad Region development it is necessary to make provision for a range of special measures which should primarily include retention of quotas for fish products import to the Regions, high customs duties for import to the other territory of Russia, and framing the law for foreign companies activities in the national Russian market.

At the same time, the most perspective way to develop the fishery industry is to form an intersectoral complex (holding company) and to amalgamate its structural units on this basis.

Assisting integration process in the fishery industry should become a priority in the economic policy of the regional and federal administrations.

Yu.A. Bobylov

For the last 3-4 years there is a steady tendency for the decrease of fish and seafood catch: it is 10 times less in the open areas of the World Ocean; seafood is caught in the exclusive zone and continental shelf only. The problem of food safety in Russia becomes more and more urgent. Its solution must be linked with the general abatement of the national economic potential in connection with the forthcoming unprepared affiliation with WTO. Russia is a great marine country that is why it should use its marine resources completely. However, the economic policy of today leads to the reduction of production in the system of the State Fishery Committee of Russia (instead of subsidies to the branch it is deprived of Rbl. 6-7 milliard annually). It is not clear in what way affiliation with WTO will influence fishery, as far as it is profitable for the strong producers and further abates the position of the weak. The reason for this phenomenon is in the fact that WTO and other international organisations have not yet decided on the range of basic matters of the market organisation of the fishery and fish trade. It is necessary to take responsibility for numerous tasks of the affiliation process (tariff policy, subsidising, protection of the national producers, law, participation in negotiations, lobbying own economic interests) which are strategic for the fishery industry of Russia. Suspense of such matters with a split between seafood exporting and importing countries hampers liberalisation of the fish trade. The task of the food safety provision in Russia with these existing tendencies and conditions for seafood production and trade, requires urgent measures in trade and economy, with economic and legal support of the fishery industry among them. It is necessary to activate organisations work on raising the level of managers' and specialists' qualification, to stimulate development of associations and unions of businessmen, fish producers, etc. Till now there is no special division for foreign trade and preparing for affiliation with WTO. Due to such reasons the fishery industry of Russia loses hundreds of millions USD annually. In order to solve the most urgent problems of the fishing industry it is necessary to conduct a special meeting of the branch as soon as possible - in 2002.

TWO EXHIBITIONS: St-Petersburg and Moscow

Annually Russia celebrates Fishermen Day. Another tradition is to conduct international fishery exhibitions once in 5 years. In 1968 an exhibition complex was constructed in Leningrad for demonstration of achievements in production and operation of fishing gear and processing techniques, promotion of trade relations, and exchange of scientific, technical and practical experience.

This year the exposition was devoted to nine subjects. Russia was presented by 20 enterprises.

At the same time the State Fishery Committee of Russia organised an analogous exhibition in Moscow. It was declared that it was determined by political and economic reasons — Moscow is the largest consumer market and possesses key potential of the industry. Yet the exhibition was to attract attention of the state to the problems of the fishery industry.

These exhibitions yield to previous ones in their scope and the number of participants. There were received a few positive comments from the participants of the exhibitions just because their dates made simultaneous presence at both events impossible.

Yu.V. Chuksin

Mauritania is one of the poorest countries in Africa. Natural resources are little, but the state is half dependant on the export of iron ore. Yet a significant fishery potential (1.5 mln t in accordance with the data of the National Centre for Oceanography and Fishery for 1998) has not returned any interest to the country till recently.

However, the USSR, Spain, and Japan have actively fished in Mauritania waters since early 1960s. During the last decade there appeared a lot of vessels of other countries there as well.

In 1970-80s the world's demand for iron decreased dramatically, and this was the reason to search for possibilities to use marine resources. By 1998 fishery policy of Mauritania has focused on promoting non-commercial fishery and integration to the national economy.

After the Soviet fleet has left Mauritanian waters there formed a resource niche which was filled by the vessels of other countries. Unlike other coastal states, Mauritania welcomes foreign fishing vessels and this is stated by its legislation.

In middle 1980s Mautritania concluded agreements on co-operation in the field of fishery with Nigeria and Senegal, in late 1980s and early 1990s - with EU, Japan, China, and Ukraine, in 1997 — with Russian Federation.

Agreements with EU are of particular importance for the country: the latter receives a significant financial amends for the right of access to its resources, some amounts are allocated for research programmes and staff training. However, EU operations in Mauritanian waters arouse protest of ecological organizations and accusations of resources abuse. That is why in order to maintain and manage the stocks, European ship-owners invest money in programmes of resource evaluation and special technical and technological equipping of the National Centre for Oceanography and Fishery.

In exchange for the right of access for the distant water fleet Mauritania got an access to EU market which resulted in the switch from the catch for local consumption to exported species. In accordance with that, EU influenced Mauritania in the area of requirements to the quality of production: in 1994 the government of the country passed the law on the terms of inspection, sanitary and hygiene of products.

One of the tendencies in Mauritania international co-operation is connected with scientific and technical assistance in the form of support for the fishery industry of the country. National budgets of some countries and independent foundations finance projects and programmes devoted to the development of local fisheries, traditional catch, coast-line developments, as well as developing own acoustical means, the System of fishery information and analysis, fishery inspection, etc.


At present the banking system of the Kaliningrad Region consists of 13 regional banks with their 6 branches, and 24 branches of out-of-town lending agencies. For the last three years the number of regional banks has remained the same.

The banks develop dynamically: amount of internal funds of the banks for 1 May 2002 is two times higher than that for 1 January 2000.

The share of regional banks in the authorized capital stock is of 45%, out-of-town banks — 55%, the major part of which (51%) belongs to the branches of Moscow banks continuing the process of joining Kaliningrad financial market: 13 more branches have been opened since 1999.

According to the number of lending agencies the Kaliningrad Region occupies the 32nd place (together with the Leningrad Region), and according to the number of regional banks it belongs to the first twenty among 89 Russian regions.

Due to the enclave location of the Region and the lack of significant resources the regional banks are forced to focus on servicing foreign trade, import on the first place. Fulfilling this function is their main development factor.

Crediting and investing work of the banks is restrained by deficiency in their internal funds and long-term debt capital. That is why among the main tasks for the banks today is accretion of capital providing for the closer co-operation with the real sector. At the same time it is necessary to use mechanisms for consolidation of the banks' capital which will lead to the better compatibility with foreign banks and meet rising demand of the regional economy.

PORTS REPARTITION on the BALTIC SEA. Preliminary results

There is more Russian cargo passing through Baltic and Finnish ports rather than through Russian ports in this region. This situation leads to losses of significant earnings. Change of tariffs introduced by the Ministry of Transport on 1 August, 2001 made Russian ports more attractive for trans-shipment of some cargo which was 2 times more than that of Baltic ports. However, in 2002 Russian ports can lose this advantage due to the further changes of the cargo tariffs and restitution of losses of the Baltic ports on the account of other kinds of cargo. The port of Tallinn is developing the most successfully on the account of Russian transit cargo. Situations in ports of Vetspils, Riga, and Liepaja are different, but mainly the turnover of cargo in Latvian ports has increased. Hopes for the change of fright flow in favour of Russian ports are connected with the setting into operation of oil terminals in the ports of Primorsk and Vysotsk. The main problem is in the profitability of usage of the Baltic ports for Russian cargo owners, and their interests do not coincide with the interests of the state and society. Moreover, leaders of transit business in the Baltic states press towards attaching Russian consignors to their ports. The main task for today is in keeping the pace of fright flows increase through Russian ports. For that state support is required in order to develop Russian ports on the Baltic Sea, including those of Primorsk and Ust-Luga, increased investment to constructing a ferry terminal for the route between Germany and Ust-Luga. Organisation of a ferry-line between Kaliningrad and Ust-Luga is of a great geopolitical and economical importance for the Kaliningrad Region which is a Russian enclave on the Baltic Sea coast. The Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation in co-operation with ports administrations should create more favourable conditions for Russian cargo owners in Russian ports than those in foreign ports of the Baltic Sea.

Beginning with the present issue, we are publishing some information of the research report in the frame of TACIS project.

In case of some positive joint decisions of EU and Russia on the future of the Kaliningrad Region, the latter has a good chance to occupy the leading position on trade routes from Russia to Europe and the world. There will arise a strong necessity in improvement of transport connections, one of which is the port of Kaliningrad. With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, land connection to Russia was broken and this resulted in the decrease of the cargo volume transported through the port of Kaliningrad; the area of the port's service also lessened. However, Kaliningrad has not lost those important advantages which it had in the past: a favourable geographical location on the Baltic Sea coast allows direct approach to the markets of the North Europe and the world. Integration of Russian (including Kaliningrad) economy into EC will promote economic growth in the Kaliningrad Region. That is why importance of the port in the future will rise. It is supposed that the general growth of transported cargo volumes will depend on the advanced container traffic: containers have an advantage in quicker cargo operations and less damage on breakage and loss - that is why they become the main cargo transporting means in the world trade. If the general situation continues to develop in line with an optimistic scenario, the increase of flows of traffic will be quicker and the reference level of the flows will be achieved earlier. In case a new container terminal is constructed in a convenient location, flows of traffic will grow earlier and higher than it is predicted for the present port. At the same time use of vessels of bigger sizes will also pay for the increase of the flows.

PORTS and the COASTLINE: issues of interference and their optimization
V.L. Boldyrev

Seaports on the shore break the regime of the nearshore currents and sand drifts along the shore. The present layout for protecting structures of ports leads to accumulation of sand and build-up of the shore on the one hand, and erosion and recession of the shore on the other hand. Besides, approach channels and harborages are filled with sand. The struggle against these phenomena requires significant financing and, in some cases, is technically unrealisable.

Latvian hydraulic engineer R. Knaps offered his own layout for ports protection which allows to remove sand drift and shore deterioration almost completely. Some fishery ports in the Gulf of Riga were constructed in accordance with this layout. Sand does not accumulate in the area of the gates and this fact makes necessary to reconstruct protecting structures of some existing ports.

In order to avoid changes of the currents and sand drift, to decrease the costs for protecting structures, news port are placed in bays and gulfs having natural open sea protection. Two large ports of this kind can be located in the Bay of Primorsk of the Visla Gulf.

Open seashore of the Kaliningrad Region can accommodate a large seaport in the area of Yantarny settlement, and several smaller ports in the places with analogous favourable conditions.

Some small insular ports connected to the shore with a trestle can be constructed on the shores of the Curonian and Visla Gulfs.

This possible perspective for the new ports in the Kaliningrad Region is offered taking into account strength and direction of the nearshore processes, and balance of sand drifts.

From the point of view of international economic collaboration, development of the international port complex of Klaipeda - Kaliningrad Region - Gdansk - Gdynia seems quite expedient.

The perspective new ports in the Kaliningrad Region together with the existing ones could provide for the annual turnover of goods up to 90 mln t, i.e. the same as for all Baltic ports of the former USSR.


Vladimir Pirogov, the vice-governor of the Kaliningrad Region, participated in the meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Union State Russia-Belorussia. The meeting discussed realisation of the action plan for creation facilities to use capacity of the sea and river ports of Kaliningrad for transporting cargo of the Union member-states.

In order to increase effectiveness of work and reach sustainable development of the transport complex in 2001 and 2002, the regional administration made a significant work: Federal Programme for the development of the Kaliningrad Region for the period up to 2010 was accepted, the meeting of the Security Council devoted to the Kaliningrad Region was held, Russian Prime-Minister M. Kasyanov, ministers and other high officials visited Kaliningrad, etc.

Since 1 August 2001 there are compatible railway tariffs for transporting cargo to and from the ports of Kaliningrad. So now railway is very attractive for all cargo transfer in the region, the latter having occupied the second place (after St-Petersburg) among the Baltic ports. However, in spite of the turnover increase, the flow of Belorussian cargo is still rather low. A lot of work is done in order to improve the situation: intergovernmental agreement was signed between the Republic of Belorussia and the Russian Federation. The goal of this agreement is in the creation of equal status in both countries for those exporting or importing their cargo via Russia and to accept favourable tariffs for transporting cargo between the Kaliningrad Region and Belorussia compared to other Baltic states.

Participants of the meeting were also informed on the measures initiated by the regional administration and taken by the State Customs Committee on simplification of customs supervision and legalisation of goods and cargo in the frame of the acting Federal Law "On Special Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad Region". It was also noted that the Federal Programme for the development of the Kaliningrad Region for the period up to 2010 provides for the financing of transport development projects — 14.7 billion Roubles, including 2.8 billion Roubles from the federal budget. On 18 August 2001 a ferry - line Kaliningrad-St-Petersburg-Germany was opened as an alternative solution to the problem of a direct connection between the Kaliningrad Region and the main territory of Russia. The regional administration together with the administration of the port of Kaliningrad, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Transport, and Ministry of State Property settles a question of constructing a deep-sea port in Baltiysk which would also provide for the ferry terminal.

The meeting confirmed the regional interest in increase of traffic in ports and preparedness to give a discount on port dues, to offer compatible rates for trans-shipment of Belorussian cargo, and favourable storage terms on request of Belorussian cargo holders.

Participants of the meeting from the Kaliningrad Region offered the Council of Ministers of the Union State to consider specific possibilities and using the budget of the Union State to get into projects devoted to the development of the port complex with the aim of raising the flow of Russian and Belorussian cargo.

Co-chairmen of the Co-ordinating Board were asked to continue joint work on creation favourable conditions for use of Kaliningrad ports capacity. The regional administration received a task to complete developmental work on preparing the programme of the Union State on the development of the port complex of the Kaliningrad Region.

A.A. Vlaznev

While entering western market, Russian ship-building industry finds itself in the situation of a tough competition in terms and costs of production. The possibilities for manoeuvring in case of wrong choice of the strategy for work, are very limited. There arises a necessity to adjust to western technical standards which determine other requirements to design and use of a vessel. The above matters are extremely urgent for the ship-building industry of the North-west Russia which is the closest to the markets of the Western Europe with the main potential customers and competitors.

Development of naval engineering in Norway is the most characteristic in terms of understanding global ship-building tendencies, i.e. how to find possibilities to develop production in the stagnating world economy under conditions of tough competition.

The prevailing number of middle-sized and small shipyards is a characteristic feature of the Norwegian ship-building structure. By 2001 Norway has become the largest ship-building country as per number of orders. But in 2001 there was a recession in the number of orders in 3.64 times which allowed to use production capacity only for 2/3. This period of instability causes a necessity to find a mechanism for adjusting to the changing situation. Such adjustment demonstrates abilities of the industry and potential for its development. The main factors providing for the specific advantages of Norwegian shipyards on the global market are the developed maritime industry, modern technologies, and flexible organisation of enterprises.

Norway is comparatively small in terms of the area and population, but it possesses the fleet which is the third in the world per dead-weight, and it is on the 5th place in number of orders for new vessels. Modern technologies are the reason for high quality and cost-efficiency of Norwegian vessels. Flexible organisation reflects in the tendency to integration of several independent shipyards which in its turn results in the decrease of production costs. However, there are few examples of such amalgamation. Development of the ship-building industry takes place mainly in the area of shipyards specialisation in certain works and use of subcontractors. There is also used a combination of specialisation and repetition work, a so called "modular approach".

Thus, the development of Norwegian shipyards takes various directions. At the same time there arise new forms of production organisation, and a large number of small independent shipyards remains.

The future of Norwegian naval engineering will be determined by the demand for small complex vessels for seabed oil and gas mining, passenger and fishing vessels, as well as by the decision of the matter of state subsidy in EU and South Korea. In case of getting back to the state granting of shipyards in some EU counties, the system of free competition will be destroyed and the processes of market repartition will begin.

In general, the situation in Norwegian ship-building for the period of 2003-2005 is estimated as stagnation with the features like incomplete use of the production capacity, low prices for new vessels, new forms of state support for the shipyards, and trade wars.

V.I. Kiselev

In 1950s there began a process of synthetic polymers usage in medicine as transplants when bony, skin or tendon defects. However, the period of enthusiasm soon changed to scepticism followed by disillusionment. Apparent advantages of synthetic materials added to the known disadvantages. There appeared information on their carcinogenic action. In search for effective and safe materials medicine turned to collagen materials. Biologically, they are the closest to the tissues of the living organism. Collagen dilution products made collagen usage in medicine possible. So, they are used for getting suture material, transplants and prostheses. They can stimulate regeneration in tissues. The future of collagen usage in medicine is very promising.

S. Kondratenko

The conference organised by the regional and municipal authorities of the Kaliningrad Region and the Centre for Environmental Policy of Russia (Moscow) attracted participants from Sweden, Lithuania, and 15 Russian cities both from its European and Asian parts.

There were considered the results of ECOMAN project which allowed to determine problems and antagonisms in the regional development including the lack of strategic development plan, a large number of the programmes available and their low effectiveness, chaotic regional legislation, etc.

Fundamental regional law "On the environmental policy of the Kaliningrad Region" has not made any notable impact on the perfection of the ecological situation in the region, for it is just a declaration of theoretical principles. A new programme devoted to the creation of the regional ecological legislation, supposes 23 new laws and amendments to 16 existing laws the effectiveness of which is quite questionable as far as such a deal of laws will frighten people off study and execution of this legislation. Besides, EU ecological legislation is being developed in the direction of lessening the number of laws and increase of their composite nature, simplification of their use.

Representatives of Russian regions shared their experience in solving environmental problems and creation of ecological policy. The progress is different, but the general conclusion is in the necessity to create expert-analytical centres for all activities which would promote sustainable development.

Ilya Komlev

Murmansk and its outskirts are full of potentially dangerous nuclear units. In this connection the matter of nuclear and radiation safety alarms the population of the region, especially against the background of criminalization of our life.

The special urgency to this problem is caused by the decision of the Government of Russia on placement of nuclear submarines reactors on the Kola Peninsula and import of foreign spent fuel. Terrorists' plans to use radwastes as a source of radiological weapons should also be taken into account.

Nowadays, there is considered a creation of a new area for accumulating nuclear waste on the territory near the Kola Gulf. The term of storage is defined at not less than one hundred years, but in reality it will last forever. The danger of such an area will raise in connection with the failure in execution of transportation requirements, storage conditions, and the lack of any guard. The work of Murmansk ports and the perspective for the city to develop as a transhipping centre for the coal from Kuznetsk Basin, is threatened.

The future of the region is also connected with the extraction of oil and gas on the national continental shelf. However, organization of a new large nuclear waste store hampers the foreseen advance of the regional development based on the sharp increase of Russian oil and gas companies' activities. Strategically, administrations of these companies attach importance to Murmansk and the North Sea Route and hopes for the safe working conditions. There arises an urgent need to remove radioactive waste from the most populated and industrially developed areas of the Kola Peninsula. It will be a great disaster when in several decades the stores will be destroyed either in the natural course or by terrorists and hunters for non-ferrous metals.

Environmental objectives and strategy at national, regional and local level in Sweden - a goal- and result-oriented process
L. Schultze

In April 1999 15 environmental quality objectives were unanimously adopted by the Swedish Parliament. The objectives focus on the dimension of sustainable development and are formulated with regard to nature's capacity for absorbing environmental impacts.

The environmental quality objectives define the state of the Swedish environment which the environmental measures seek to achieve; the interim targets state the direction and time-scale for the ongoing concrete environmental measures.

Now, 21 counties in Sweden have to define their part of the different national interim targets. The objective of sustainable development should be integrated into all the County Administrative Boards' activities such as infrastructure planning and regional growth agreements.

An important part is to engage as many of the inhabitants as possible in the process. During the work the county of Halland worked in co-operation with different groups of people, NGO's and other associations. All people were questioned on the environmental problems being the most important (worse) for the county of Halland, their description of their future in en environmental perspective, an what has to be done in order to create the desirable future.

With the answers as a basis, a structure for the environmental strategy took form and a vision was described. Two comprehensive objectives were chosen: quality of life and the environmental objectives. The inhabitants in Halland have pointed out the direction of the regional environmental work. It is well co-ordinated with the national objectives, targets and strategies.

With a regional environmental strategy, regional environmental interim targets and a system for monitoring and evaluation — as a part of the national structure — we will work hard to create a sustainable development. We hope other regions and countries will do the same.

Creative thinking development for engineering work of a marine specialist and criteria for its assessment
E.A. Varnavskikh

Educating a navy officer is a complicated process of a purposeful training of a specialist for a successful professional work. At present this work is connected with use of modern equipment. For this officers need engineering education, as far as they have to solve technical tasks including unforeseen situations on a modern level. An officer must be taught this, and he has to learn constantly. Experience shows that technical creative work directed to decision of abnormal engineering tasks, is an effective educating method. For this creative activity and ability for creative improvisation is required. Creative activity of a cadet can be assessed with the help of such criteria as a feeling of novelty, critical mind, ability to transform engineering objects, orientation to technical creative work.. In teaching these criteria are empiric indices, and each criterion has its specific number of indices. It allows to develop diagnostic methods necessary for educational work. Their use in teaching allows lecturers to interact with their cadets in the most effective way. Qualities necessary for the creative engineering work are acquired in the result of education. Actions of a cadet show the effectiveness of the educating process. Practical work of a specialist is the final result of this process. Nowadays, specialist training make proper demands of the level of teacher training.

V. Chernyshova

Every single category of fishermen in East Prussia had its own rules for the volume of catch, tax payments, and leasing of state water basins.

Interests of fishermen were protected by several organizations. Fishery Departments were responsible for the state control.

In the beginning of the XX century fishermen actively united into various associations which had to protect them from arbitrary behaviour of merchants. A fisherman joining such an association, usually had his own boat and fishing gear.

In East Prussia, coastal fishing prevailed till the end of XIX century, because it was dangerous to put far to open sea on the used vessels. Since 1898 Swedish sailing boats had been used which allowed fishing far in the open sea.

Another fishing type allowed to catch big species on a rod which was quite expensive and not efficient.

There existed a great variety of fishing gear devoted to catch of different species. Scrupulous Germans calculated that by 1928 there had been used 6 400 nets for Baltic herring, 1 200 — for plaice, 4 500 rods for salmon, 400,000 rods for cod, and many other fishing gear.


In 1977 Kaliningrad Technical Institute for the Fishery Industry and Economy (at present - Kaliningrad State Technical University) made a technical examination to establish reasons of the wreck of the "Gorizont" trawler, which sunk after the motor ship "Ifni" of Morocco had hit it.

Performance attributes of the trawler greatly surpassed those of similar foreign vessels. During its first sailing it was rammed by the "Ifni" which sailed in a parallel course with an automatic pilot, and then suddenly changed its course per 900. The trawler was severely destroyed — the crew could not save the vessel. For the "Ifni" the technical examination was made by an English company the experts of which have significantly reduced the destruction, thus accusing the crew of the trawler of negligence in saving the vessel.

After the study of documents and statements of witnesses, comparing destruction of both vessels the Commission came to persuasive conclusion that the destruction stated by English experts, was much greater in reality and the crew acted correctly. The motor ship of Morocco and its owner are guilty of the wreck of the "Gorizont" trawler.

Translated by Anna ROMANOVA



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