SUMMARY 1 (6) 99
Murmansk - Arkhangelsk - Saint-Petersburg
- Kaliningrad - an effectiveness of interests?
Fishing enterprises of Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Saint-Petersburg have their fishery at the same areas, also have the same market outlets. Such a situation leads to a conflicts and non-effective price formation. All ports have their fascinations and advantages, but it is necessary to find the ways of consolidation for a stopping the next breakdown of fishing industry. Life confirms that a large corporations have more chances to get a money for their development. The only chance for many fishing companies problems solving, including new ships building is their interests representation by state fishing corporation, for example Russian Stock Company North-West fishing corporation as a united holding structure with a State's Fishing Committee controlling block of shares.
The state will be able in a links of such holding not only to straighten out the fishing industry, but concentrate a considerable financial resources and provide real possibilities its getting from potential investors. It will permit to ensure a job for thousands Russian people. To this Russian Stock Company it is possible to join as a state shareholders fishing stock companies of Murmansk, Kaliningrad, Leningrad region and Arkhangelsk. 49 % registered capital selling to private holders will permit to add that invests.
Concerning the fleet's reducing they say, that its additional building is not necessary due to intensive fishery and biological resources reducing. Sustainable catching-restoration process is possible through proper management an industrial process of catching and technical fleet's exploitation. But it is necessary to stress that fish can not be a chip food product. Getting the license should not an easy procedure, its necessary to sell on a commercial base only or on the terms of planned level fish production supplying to a state reserve.
There are a lot of specialists in Russia, and it is necessary only medium and high level managers additional education for the ways of corporative work and legislative base.
The Baltic dimension of Russian foreign
Transfrontier cooperation became a real structure of interstate relations. It have been developing dynamically, involving a more number of participants and have a special significance for us, because almost a half from 89 RF entities are frontier or coastal. In January 1999 was adopted a special Federal Law On Coordination of International and External Economic Relations of the Constituent Entities of Russian Federation. Before in March 1996 a role of coordinator in united Russian foreign policy was entrusted to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, under which there have been established a Consultative Council of the constituent entities of Russian Federation. A preparation work for Russia's joining to European Outline Convention on a territorial communities and authorities 1980 have been finishing. The next item - elaboration of a frontier cooperation conception and the frontier Russian Federation territory status. The main tasks on a frontier cooperation direction we consider a good - neighbour area cooperation creation assistance on all Russian borders perimeter and favourable external conditions guaranteeing for international contacts of our frontier territories.
Concerning the Baltic region, Russia, Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Estonia are actively and fruitfully interacted in it for their peoples interests. In 1997 on the Russian President instructions there was elaborated a long-term Russian line concerning the Baltic states. There have been fixed its strategic aim a neighbour potential between Russia and the Baltic states whole realization. The next significant step is announced by Russian President in April 1997 40% reduction of Russian North-West armed forces. Russia, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia have been formed the intergovernmental commissions with a contiguous territories representatives participating. There was formed a Council on frontier regions cooperation of Russia, Latvia and Estonia. There have been signed and is operating an intergovernmental Russian -Finnish Agreement on cooperation of Saint-Petersburg, Leningrad and Murmansk regions, Republic of Karelia. The same agreement have been signed on the Kaliningrad region with Polish North-East regions.
It is necessary to mark a fruitful cooperation not only with the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS), but with the European Union and the Council of Europe. For example is our joint with the European Union project - Saint-Petersburg - the European Gates of Russia. Moscow have been welcomed positively the Northern Dimension Finnish initiative. Last time a new form of transfrontier cooperation such as Euroregions have been developed with a Kaliningrad region participation in a Euroregion Baltic, and soon it will be the same Euroregion Saule (Sun) with its participation. Russian is for cooperation deepening on the Kaliningrad direction.
There are well known Russian negative position to NATO's expansion, but concerning the same with EU, our position is based on a principle- one of directions progress should not lead to regress for others, and meanwhile a new moments, which make the Kaliningrad region contacts with other neighbour states more difficult, have been appeared. And it is necessary to discuss it with a EU and will not allow the situation worsening in the Baltic region. And a positive event would have been signing Russian-Lithuanian agreement on a long-term cooperation of the Kaliningrad region with Lithuanian regions. And there are a reserves of further cooperation in an idea of the Baltic Shengen creation. Here the CBSS may be said its weighty utterance.
Concerning the Kaliningrad region Russia for its whole participation as one of the constituent entities in an international cooperation projects in the Baltic region and in Europe. But there will not be understand an ideas of a special from Russia status entity and the attempts to have a deals with it omitting the federal centre. And do not help here the discussions about its so called super-militarization. The Baltic region has a good perspectives for the interregional and transfrontier cooperation on a large scale of questions, which are interested all their participants. We hope, that the International Conference on Transfrontier Cooperation in the Baltic region, which have had been in March 1999 in Svetlogorsk (Kaliningrad region, Russia), will have been make a new region's countries interaction impulse. Also we would like to change some our partners relation to Russian regions as a markets for their goods distribution. Most significance for us have a such forms of cooperation, which favour the economy uprising ant the living standard of Russian frontier territories, i.e. investment projects, small and medium support and etc. There will be a unique possibility a cargoes transportation from Europe to Far East in a links two customs spaces only - EU and Russia in case of transport corridor Via-Hanseatica project implementation. A good perspective has the idea of the Baltic energetic ring.
So a new field for intensive dynamic international cooperation have been forming objectively in a region of the Baltic Sea, and we are looking forward for interest, initiative and pragmatism of our partners in this important affair. We think the transfrontier projects forwarding and concerning the Kaliningrad region particularly and its neighbours would be a coordination and partly TACIS and PHARE projects amalgamation. Russia is ready to the next constructive dialog deepening on the Baltic with an aim of neighbour, mutual understanding and confidence climate strengthening in this region.
Kaliningrad region in a ring of Euroregions
In February 1999 was the 1st anniversary of the Euroregion Baltic. It is the first European tranfrontier community with Russian participation. It of course does not means, that Kaliningrad concerning Euroregions is ahead of all Russia. There is an example of Pskov region active participation in Russia, Latvia and Estonia frontier areas cooperation Council, and it is possible on its base will be born in a nearest future Euroregion PAV (Pskov-Aluksne - Vyru). There are also an examples of such Russian cooperation with Ukrainian and Byelorussian regions.
The Euroregions' tasks are frontier regions resources unification with a purpose of social and economic problems of their development making good and free crossing borders obstacles liquidation. Legislative base of their existing is European links convention on territorial communities and authorities 1980 frontier cooperation( come into force on 22nd of December 1987) and the participating states legislation. Nowadays they have a considerable role in a European integration processes and favourable conditions for EU development on its outlying districts.
Mutual activity financing as more difficult question have been resolving by the participants on a parity basis. Beylorussia, for example, takes part in two Euroregions activity - Bug and Neman. But its results there is more less than of Poland. And Poland can be proud of that considerable progress. They have been created 10 Euroregions near their borders. For example, Euroregion Neise activity (Poland-Czechia-Germany) as they say have been permitted in 1994-1996 to realize 32 projects with an approximate cost 900 millions USD.
And what's the result of Euroregion Baltic activity with a participation of Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden? There were some objective difficulties. First of all it is six countries participation, what is a precedent for Europe. In Poland there have been a local authorities reorganization, ant there was a necessity to make a changes in a founders documents. But due to Secretariat's efforts (Head Zdislav Ol'shevsky) some positive results have been achieved. First of all Baltic got a status of observer in Euroregions Association (headquarter in Gronau, Germany). Also a special booklet and the first number of periodical journal were published, a page in Internet have had appeared. Three working groups were created and begun their activity:
Due to Secretariat's efforts and a first working group members the application have been made for some joint projects financing through EU programs PHARE and CREDO. As a result two of them were satisfied: Secretariat's financing in Klaipeda (20 000 ECU) and Russian-Polish proposal on Baltijsk historical part reconstruction (50 000 ECU).
Concerning the second working group, more active participation there took part Russian and Polish represents. In July 1999 in Poland will be organized the ecological holiday camp for a six countries youth. Possible it will be an international scout's camp in Kaliningrad region. A preparation have begun for the Baltic Youth Parliament organization in 2000.
Third group with a Sweden leadership studied most important ecological projects, one of them is the sewage disposal installations for the Baltijsk city district.
In 2000 Russian town Baltijsk will be Euroregion Baltic headquarter, and it is necessary to solve a problem for its opening for foreigners, as this was made in Karlskrona (Sweden). It is possible to use also an experience of Bornholm island (Denmark), where they try now to resole a problem of their economy restructure due to some military units withdrawal. As it known, Kaliningrad region joined Euroregion Baltic with all Association of the municipal formations, and each district is able to use its possibilities for their own development and managing personnel retraining.
Eastern districts of our region also can join to Euroregion Neman, which was organized in Augustov (Poland) in1997 with a participation of former Suvalki region, and Grodno region from Beylorussia, Alitus and Marijampole districts of Lithuania. It seems to me its initiators in a hurry perfectly have forgotten about Kaliningrad's participants - Gusev, Nesterov, Ozersk and Chernjakhovsk districts. Nevertheless they now wish to see them among the participants of Euroregion Neman. Moreover, in June 1999 its Chairman will be from Byelorussian side.
And at last, near the borders of the Kaliningrad region soon can appear one more Euroregion Saule (Sun). Its initiators are our neighbours at the north. There will be the participants not only from Lithuania, Latvia and Kaliningrad region (Russia), but two regions from Sweden. One of the main future community projects may be regional automobile road infrastructure VIA-HANSEATICA (Saint-Petersburg - Pskov - Riga - Elgava - Shauljay - Taurage - Sovetsk - Kaliningrad - Elblag - Gdansk). There have been three working group for Euroregion Saule creation meetings, and possible in June 1999 a new interregional union of four states with a Kaliningrad Participation will be work.
In this connection I would like to suggest to attract additionally in Euroregion Baltic activity such districts of the Kaliningrad region as Zelenogradsk, Bagrationovsk, Pravdinsk and Gurievsk districts, and also the tows Svetlogorsk, Pionerskiy and Jantarnyi. Into Neman additionally to four above mentioned districts it is necessary to join Krasnoznamensk district. And concerning Saule, additionally to three before planned districts it is necessary to join and Gvardeyskiy district, laying in the links of future Via-Hanseatica.
Of course, three are not all so well and clear on the Euroregional cooperation organization ways of Russian regional and local authorities with their foreign partners. One of the main obstacle is Russia's absence of necessary legislative base. Our country does not join until to European (Madrid's) convention. There are no the agreements with our Baltic region neighbours except Poland on transfrontier cooperation. But federal authorities understand it and work in this direction. And it can be approved by adoption at the end of 1998 of the State Duma a new federal law On Coordination of International and External Economic Relations of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation. National legislative field expansion for Russian participation in a transfrontier cooperation, undoubtedly, will have been a positive effect to our neighbour relations and integration processes in the Baltic Sea region.
Future Poland's and Lithuania's joining
to EU - new problems or a new possibilities for the Kaliningrad economy?
This article based on the working results on Bistro BIS/98/010 project
elaborated by Fund Yantar' and Finnish consulting company Wiseteam Oy.
Poland and Lithuania are in number of its three first foreign trade and investment partners side by side with Germany. A significance of these contacts is more essential for Kaliningrad region than for them, because Lithuania's share of export to region is only 5 % and Poland's is considerably smaller. Experts are forecasting Poland's joining to EU during 2002-2007 and Lithuania's considerable later. But for a realization of the EU demands they can to ensure in nearest time the next steps:
Putting of customs taxes in accordance to EU standards.
Expansion and development of Poland's and Lithuania's frontier infrastructure on a borders of the Kaliningrad region.
Gradual toughening of border's crossing rules with a next perspective of joining to united Shengen's prosperity.
Introduction of a new more strict quality standards, consumer's and environment's defense according to EU demands.
Management's level and competitiveness rising of Polish and Lithuanian enterprises.
Considerable investments to infrastructure of frontier to Kaliningrad region Polish and Lithuanian territories from EU and governmental resources.
Gradual salary rising at a Polish and Lithuanian enterprises.
Allocation of a considerable funds by EU for support of Polish and Lithuanian food export.
As a consequence for the Kaliningrad region it may be a danger of its economic isolation and expansion here of Polish and Lithuanian goods, food mostly. For these problems solving such two groups of measures may be offered: First -
Spatial planning - from future picture
Kaliningrad region seeing to action
In 1992 in a new formed municipal administrations was got a course to the civil infrastructure development with on a small and medium business orientation. Nowadays we are having the tasks of more big scale - more rational of natural, manpower and financial resources, industrial capacities and etc. It is the next stage already in a market's relations development - a stage of the state's and municipal regulation. Since a positive democratic reorganizations in our region have been begun, it become open for an international cooperation. The possibility of contacts establishing with a neighbour frontier towns have been appeared. And today equally with a markets infrastructure development, foreign economic and interregional contacts new system there have been forming.
Our mutual interest with Poland - it is a joint ventures creation, resorts and recreational zones development, direct merchant and tourist ties at the Vistula's Bay and the Baltic Split. We are interested also in a ferry line establishing with Karlskrona (Sweden). We have signed with that city an agreement on twin cities relations, and would like to make the same with Klaipeda and Neringa.
There are more than 60 Euroregions in European space, which are joined into As so ciation. And we took an active in the Euroregion Baltic activity from 1998. It is the most big one in Europe and a first with Russian side participation. The major purpose of the Baltic cooperation and a spatial planning is more effective available space usage, social and economic sides leveling, preservation and optimal natural and cultural resources usage. Due to European Union new initiative INTERREG II - Spatial Planning a new possibilities for sustainable development were opened for the countries with a transitional economy.
In a Euroregion Baltic links the main of three working groups is the first - regional development and spatial planning. Its main purpose - sides development plans coordination, common social and economic development of Euro region Baltic creation. In a links of local authorities there will be created the spatial planning departments. Nowadays there have been creating the Association of the Kaliningrad region spatial planning. The space of Euroregion can be transformed into international level power region. In a links of VASAB 2010 it is a direction D, which connect Scan di na via with a many world countries. A various projects in a links of VASAB 2010, INTERREG II C, TACIS and others should be coordinate and to direct on a united purpose.
Who and what for need a state pilot's
This article is devoted to Maritime Merchant Navigation Codex discussion, which was adopted by the State Duma in April 1999. Its adoption is a serious step on the maritime legislation way of development, since the last one from 1968 based on a sea vessels and ports state's property principles and their state's regulation.
New Codex stipulates a creation the state's pilots organizations, and the author of this article tries to substantiate the legality of non commercial pilots organizations and their necessity. Possible reorganization, which can be after new Codex adoption, on the author's opinion, will make many difficulties and some confusions in their activity. And are there a necessary financial and supplying possibilities for such a reorganization? Maritime lawyer make a conclusion, that in a current situation there is no necessity to adopt Maritime Merchant Navigation Codex with such an edition of its 87th law article, suggested by the State Duma. It is none other, than the step backwards, considers a maritime law specialist.
WEST BASTION OF RUSSIA
The Baltic Fleet will be celebrate its 300-th anniversary in 2003. It had been experienced a large number of tragedies, a lot of catalysis and a twists of fate. Moreover, it not only held out but have been surprised a various Russian generations by the feat of arms tops, great courage, military heroism and selfless service to Motherland.
History of the Black Sea , Pacific and North Fleets begins from the Baltic. All their victories are a development of Peter's the Great Baltic Navy, which birth was marked as a foundation of a new Russia. It had been entered to a North War (1700-1721) with some boats only and finished as a Great sea power with a first-class line and galley fleet. No one state in a world created so powerful operative strategic unit during military actions of war.
Peter the Great would not have been decided for a capital's removing to Neva's estuary. So one of the world's greatest scientific and cultural centres also is obliged for foundation to the fleet. In the annals of Baltic Fleet there is a most glorious sea victory of mankind's history - under Chesma, about which Katherine II wrote as a precious stone of her crown. During a little known Russian-Sweden war 1788-1790 only the Baltic Fleet won six general sea battles, and it is a someone world's record. The Baltic Fleet also become an establishment of regulars and gave for Russia all really great naval commanders such as Ushakov, Lazarev, Nakhimov, Kornilov, Makarov and Essen.
Ships of the Baltic Fleet had been plotted their the course in all oceans and seas including Antarctic, which was opened by the Baltic seamen. Fleet have had been surprising a world not only by its sacrificing, for example within a dangerous earthquake in Messina (Italy) in 1908 with a saving of some thousands people from death, but and highest rises of intellect and spirituality. Namely the Baltic Fleet gave to a world the composer Rimskiy-Korsakov, writers Sobolev and Kolbsasiev, inventor of radio and radar Popov, physicist Jakoby, collector of Russian word Dal', shipbuilder academician Krylov. During the WW I the Baltic Fleet won the battle for Baltic with Germans in spite of their numbers superiority.
There is a special tragedy in a Baltic Fleet's February and October revolutions, Civil war fortunes definition, and Admiral Kolchak was one of the leaders of White movement. Many white naval officers believed in Bizerta, that their severe trials after the Fleet removing from Sevastopol were not in vain. Kronshtadt uprising of the Baltic seamen in 1921 had prompted the Bolshevik's party to replace the politic of military communism to new economic policy. The restoration of the Fleet had begun from Baltic in 1930-s, and even here fought the best submariners of the Great Patriotic war such as Alexander Marinesko and I. Grishcenko.
The Baltic Fleet changed in quality after WW II. But a seamen serve now, who have been leaving Svinoustje, Zasnits, Liepaja, Ust'-Dvinsk, Tallinn, Paldisky . More than 6000 seamen were reduced within last 7 years, 8180 officers were transferred to the reserve before their terms of service and approximately and such a number of mitchmans and praporshciks. The Baltic Fleet was reduced by three times in a number of ships and people. But the Fleet not only held out. It became the west advanced post of a country. Also it got rid of an old ships and machinery. More than 90 % of ships are ready to put to sea in any time, an age of more than 70 % of combatant ships and submarines is less 15 years. The park of battle planes is modern with a resource to 2008.
The Leningrad's naval base including to the Baltic Fleet had been permitted to recompense a minuses of breaking strategic space. Its scientific and industrial potential with a Naval Academy, institutes, High officer's classes, scientific institutes and design offices made more closely a fundamental science and the system of XXI-st century officers' training to practice.
Antiaircraft area of the Baltic Fleet, which was created in 1995, has a modern fighting equipment with a good condition. In 1997 the 11-th Separate Guards Army joined the Baltic Fleet and became the base of its land and coastal forces. Firstly in Russia there was created a unique structure on a base of the Baltic Fleet, which includes the naval forces, antiaircraft troops, air-forces and land troops. This experience have got a high mark not only Russian military specialists, but and foreign. For example, Great Britain is going to follow such a structure in 2017 only.
Hard financial and economic state of a country had been influenced all practically spheres of the Baltic Fleet life including the delays of salary, debts for food supplying and communal conveniences. 64 % of ship-repairing capacities with their best ship-yards stayed in the Baltic states, thus in 1996 at the Baltic naval base was established a ship-repairing complex for the 3-4 ranks of ships technical maintenance with two floating ship-repairing shops and coastal ship-repairing shops. A shortage of a fuel is in a critical situation on the Baltic Fleet, which leads for putting ships to sea reducing and influenced to the commanding officers mastership in various conditions.
The combat training main directions are the next now:
Puts to sea with a two crews on a board also are available. The exercises in 1998 approved a fighting efficiency of a new operational strategic large force. The Baltic Fleet won five kinds tactical and fire exercises from thirteen. A high results showed an attack aviation regiment and surface ships division seamen under rear-admiral Oleg Dem'janchenko in command, Kaliningrad antiaircraft area, which had been recognized the best in a Military Forces of Russia and mastered a new rocket complex S-300 PS. It achieved a 100% real rockets destroying during last exercises.
But not an iron and fuel are the main thing. Above all are a people. Remained of them are devoted to the Fleet. But their patience is not without end. The most anxious factor is a housing problem for more than 10,5 thousands families including 8 thousands in Kaliningrad region only.
Nevertheless 1562 military men and transferred to the reserve families received a flats, and there is a real hope for building enlargement in 1999.
Command and staff exercise of the Baltic Fleet in March with a cooperation of heterogeneous forces training purpose in a new structure approved that and nowadays the Baltic Fleet is able to solve the tasks of Russia's safety not in Baltic only, but in a remote World ocean areas. Our general duty is to consolidate that we have had achieved and do not lose that we have had acquired.
It had been born on Baltic
That day had been waited for more than ten years on Baltic in Kaliningrad and Saint-Peters burg, North. And finally on the 28th of January 1999 in Baltijsk on a big antisubmarine ship board the ADMIRAL CHABANEN KO for the first time was unveiled Andreev's man-of-war ensign. This day to Russian Navy officially joined fighting ship of the first rank, considerably differed on many parameters from have been built before. Russian Minister of Defense Marshal of Russian Federation Igor Sergeev send a telegram with greetings to shipbuilders shipyard Jantar' and remain to the ship's crew commandment of Peter the Great: Flag in front of enemy do not hall down under any circumstances.
The history of newest Russian big antisubmarine ship project 1155.1 was begun as far back in 70-s. World sea powers have begun to elaborate a multipurpose ships, because it was more cheep. In USSR were laid down various projects - destroyer 956 and big antisubmarine ship 1155. In 1982 there have been appeared a first schemes of 1155 project modernization. It was perfectly new ship in a working drawings, which differed from the first one of this project the Udaloy. There were the next innovations: anti-ships rockets Moskit-M, one doubled 130 mm artillery launcher, anti-torpedo defense complex Udav, some antiaircraft systems Kinzhal, modern gas-turbine powerplant, more powerful hydro-acoustic complex, which can to spot an atomic submarine under the temperature layer leap, unite antiaircraft complex control system, and some other new systems. As a result, the Admiral Chabanenko total fighting potential raised in 2,5 times in comparison of previous 1155 or 956 projects and correlates with a world's level. It is really is multipurpose ship and not big antisubmarine. Furthermore, there are a possibilities for the next modernization. The time of its service is 25 years with the understanding that all necessary repairs will be performed.
Ship's first captain was Igor Bykov. Five directors of the shipyard have been changed during last ten years. Now the commanding officer of this ship is captain 1st rank Mikhail Kolyvushko, which ensured the fulfillment of the state run trials with his crew within 17 days and 1300 miles sailing. This new super modern fighting ship was built for the Russian Navy North Fleet and on the 26 of February left Baltijsk to a new place of its basing. It may be called the ship of the XXI century.
Andrey Chabanenko (1909 - 1986), admiral(1953),1951-1962- Commander-in-chief of the North Fleet,1962-1972 - General Staff Head' assistant, 1972-1976- professor-consultant of the General Staff Academy, from 1976 - in retirement.
It is a time to sum up
Annually German Ship-owners Union in Hamburg sums up world's shipping companies activity and analysis a world navigation and ship-building state for current year. In 1998 there was made a common conclusion, that economic preconditions for sea navigation and sea carriage considerably worsened. And it is possible, as their experts considered, such a situation will be this year. They suppose, that financial and economic crises in Asia, Latin America and Russia, effected sea carriages markets considerable more, than prognosticated before. Thus German ship-owners consider, that situation in a field of sea carriages in perspective will be more difficult.
Freight rates in a tramp sea navigation and tramp container sea carriages reduced in 1998 on 50%, and raised the prices for container transportation. Concerning German merchant shipping state, they made a conclusion, that within last two years it constantly have been modernized and replenished by modern vessels. They have on the 1st of September 1998 for about 1700 vessels with tonnage 17,1 millions gross registered tonnes, including 800 ones with a German flag with 530 of them placed in International shipping register, and last 900 with open shipping register flag states. German shipping companies as before have a world leading place in a container sea carriage sphere.
Concerning world merchant fleet state, in 1998 to international sea carriages system have been included a new vessels 34,1 million deadweight capacity (in 1997- 38,7 million deadweight). The loses were 24,6 + 0,8 = 25,4 million deadweight. World merchant fleet capacity raising was 2,4 %, and whole tonnage 751 deadweight tonnes capacity. Tankers' capacity raised on 7,4 million deadweight tonnes. Reduced the number of ore-carriers, which capacity was 36,6 %. Other cargo and Ro-Ro vessels consisted 13,2 %. An age more 15 years have 52 % tankers, 41 % cargo vessels and 23 % container carriers.
Leading place among flags take place open shipping register flags - 51,7 %. The places among them from world total tonnage are: Panama - 19 %, Liberia - 12 %, Greece - 5,8 %, Bahamas - 5,2 %, Malta - 5,1 %, Cyprus - 4,8 %, Norway - 4,5 % and Germany - 1,2 % only with a 20th place.
Speaking about real ship-owners national belonging, Greece have 16,5 % of world merchant fleet, Japan - 12,1 %, Norway - 7,1 %, Germany - 2,9 % (8th place), but in a container carrier shipping - 1st place.
According to German Ship-owners Union report, an order for world's merchant fleet new vessels building raised from 49 million tonnes in 1997 to 55,6 million tonnes in 1998. Leading place for getting ship-building orders in 1997 belonged to Japan (42,7 %) and South Korea (33,4 %). And only 4% have German and 3,3 % Chinese shipyards.
German merchant fleet on the 30th of September 1998 have had 1729 vessels with a tonnage 17,16 million gross-registered tonnes or on 113 ones more (2,84 million gross registered tonnes ), than in 1997.These figures shows German merchant fleet swift growing within last five years.
German ship-owners Union experts and analysts suppose, that in a nearest perspective the turnover structure of international merchant shipping will be more divided on so called characteristic cargo signs. The main reason of such vessels building is that in XXI century will be world economy more intensive division even with a less developed countries participation. And also it will be a tendency against giant vessels building such as oil tankers 9 From 500 000 tonnes to 200 000 - 300 000 tonnes optimal ), except ore carriers with their raising cargo-carrying capacity to 300 000 tonnes. But the main attention as usually will be paid to container carriers building in XXI century.
The strategic objective - a sustainable
Due to XXI century approaching a publicity of the Baltic region ask the question - what must be a fishery strategic in the Baltic sea and its bays. They offer a various final and intermediate objectives of them reaching with a full development Russian quotas orientation through new fleet building, buying, fish production realization, and also new economic conditions creation without current condition fishery and its base, main catching fishes prospects of preservation and reproduction. Under this method of attack a sustainable fishery achievement is the main strategic objective due to international agreements and acts, adopted in 90-s, including Rio Declaration (Agenda 21), FAO Codex on responsible fishery, process the Baltic 21, which Russia joined.
An author considers, that it is impossible to renew the fleet in a nearest 5-6 years due to state economy current condition. An experience of the Baltic states shows, that it is possible to catch a quotas by fleet of former USSR , which they are having now, if a resource base admits. For example, Latvia and Estonia with an average 25-30 years fleet age very good have been mastering their not a little quotas. Latvia in 1997 mastered its herring quotas on 76,5%, Estonia - on 93,7 %, but Russia - on 36,6 % only; on sprat: Latvia - on 72 %, Estonia - on 70 % and Russia -- on 40 %.
Russian fishermen in a whole have been mastering their quotas in tow times worse, than Estonian and Latvian fishermen. What's the reason? According to ATLANTNIRO estimations, a figure of possible permissible catching (PPC) in 26 area is not more 58 600 tonnes, meanwhile allotted to Russia quota is set too high, despite science recommendations, was 94 700 tonnes. Difference between these figures puts together so called "paper fish".
What's the reason of setting too high possible permissible catching by International the Baltic Sea Fishery Commission (IBSFC) under European Union pressure? Getting a big sprat and herring quotas, EU countries formally solve their fishermen employment problem, and provide with a raw material its developing fish meal manufacture. Denmark and Sweden industrial capacities are able to grind to fish meal and other technical production practically all their sprat quota with a 30% young herring additional landings.
East Baltic countries are opposed to that, since have been constructed their economy on herring fish manufacturing. But at the same time Latvia and Estonia have a profit of setting too high PPC, because their local Riga's Bay herring resource is in a good condition, and PPC reducing to the science recommended level, would have lead to their countries fishermen interests infringing. The herring reserves, exploited by Russian fishermen, are in depressive condition. Such a situation is with a cod of the East Baltic Sea, and there are no prospects for a considerable catching raising in the Baltic during nearest 5-6 years.
In order to raise Russian fishermen 's catching in a nearest future, it is necessary to choose those or other manager's (strategies) decisions. And first of all it is a strategy of fish resources management. A considerable part of its financing provides State Fishery Committee. Firstly within 25 years of IBSFC existence a cod PPC is in accordance with a science recommendations. And cod's resources reducing in East Baltic stopped. The condition of Baltic salmon resources have becoming better. But some aspects of a sustainable fishery common strategy would be solved on a regional level in accordance with a decision of Gdansk Convention 1973, Russian legislation, and there is possible to establish in own coastal waters an additional and international measures of management and regulation. The regional authorities prerogative is a conditions creation for fish resources reproduction.
An Antarctic krill: history and prospects
There were many hopes to an Antarctic krill's protein. They have been spoken many about its boundless resources and great food value. The resources are really considerable and food value is quite a lot. But a fishery have arisen, have developed and sharply reduced in a one time, and is not on a high level now. Let's have a look into history for understanding this event and thinking of a future.
The beginning of world krill's fishery may be thought 1961-1962, when first three tonnes of krill were landed by fishing vessel RT-202 Muksun during research expedition. Firstly the fishery and its scientific substantiation were developed simultaneously. During 60-s the landings were insignificant, but elaboration of fishery instruments and krill's production have been made. Also have had been defined the places of its most concentration. FAO statistics have been made an attempts to observe the krill's world fishery, but the first data have been appeared only from 1970,evidence of Soviet fishery from 1972, and most sustainable statistic in 1975. Experimental fishery of krill have been continued till the end 70-s and in 1982 has reached of a record level 528699 tonnes, including 491656 tonnes or 93 % of world's. World's landings in Antarctic part of Atlantic reached 374080 tonnes including USSR 368182 tonnes or 98 % of world's in APA or 70 % of world's.
Japan begun its experimental fishery in 1972 only with later joining other countries, but the main part of landings have belonged to USSR and then to Russia practically till full stopping of native fishery in 1994.
The reasons of a sharp world and native catching reducing in 1983-1984 have been remaining unknown. Some authors consider it was a n influence there were some reasons such as a high percentage of fluoride, the difficulties of processing and Falkland's crisis. Some raise of landings was in 1985 and already in 1985 they were 445673 tonnes. On the picture 1 are shown the results of krill's landings till 1986. During 1986-1992 a world's krill's fishery had been stabilized at the level of 300-400 thousand tonnes with share of Russia and Ukraine 212-272 thousand tonnes or 70-73 % of a world's. In 1993 the landings of Russia and Ukraine were 10332 tonnes or 12 % of a world's. Within last years neither Russia nor Ukraine run a fishery.
During 1964-1999 ATLANTNIRO published 415 scientific articles, devoted to various aspects of investigation Antarctic ecosystem. These investigations of ATLANTNIRO including other research institutes were for a creation a scientific base for three kinds of resources: sea mammals, fishes and krill. It is obviously also, that oceanographic researches have had created a base for using under their fishery providing preparing.
Stopping of a native fishery and investigations could lead for losing of our positions in a region, which will be very difficult to restore in case of changing an economical situation in Russia for the better in future. So the main achievement ATLANTNIRO investigations of krill and Antarctic ecosystem in a whole could be considered the creation of a scientific and prognostic base of a krill's fishery.
CCAMLRM activity and krill's fishery modern state
The krill's fishery so as and other living resources in Antarctic zone is regulated by Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLRM), except whales and Pinnipedia. Convention was ratify in 1980 and is considered acting from 1982 after first CCAMLRM session. There are the next 23 members of the CCAMLRM nowadays: Austria, Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Great Britain, Germany, EU, India, Spain, Italy, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Russia, USA, Ukraine, Uruguay, France, Chili, Sweden, Republic of South Africa, Japan. Some countries are the members of the Convention but not the Commission. They are Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, Greece, Holland and Peru.
Commission manage by the affairs of the Convention with its constant Secretariat in Hobart (Australia) on the Tasmania island. Commission has a Scientific Committee (SC-CCAMLRM) with some working groups in it. Two working groups are working constantly now: Working Group on Fish Stock Assessment ( WG-FSA) and Working Group on Ecosystem Monitoring and Management ( WG- EMM). WG-EMM was established in 1994 by an amalgamation of two existed Working Groups on Ecosystem Monitoring and on Krill.
The jurisdiction of CCAMLR spreads to a territory of approximately 32,9 million square km. In 1991 at the 10th session was adopted the first measure on krill's resources preservation and was established a precautionary limit 1,5 million tonnes of world catching in South Atlantic sector during from 1st July to 30th of June of the next year. But this limit could be reviewed by CCAMLR on recommendation of the Scientific Committee. It i9s expected the change of the precautionary figure in accordance of the international scientific expedition results, which is planned at the beginning 2000.
After the USSR breakdown and stopping a fishery by Russia and Ukraine a world's krill's landings is 100 000 tonnes annually including Japan 63413 tonnes, Korea 1621 tonnes, Poland 15312 tonnes, Great Britain 634 tonnes for the 1997/1998 fishery season.
Japan had been planned its fishery 1998/1999 season at the former level with a catching of 60000 tonnes by four trawlers. Korea expected to conserve its landings at the level of 2000 tonnes as and Great Britain with a limitation by winter and summer periods. USA intended to begin krill's fishery in September 1998 with one vessel.
Under these staying fishery tendencies it is obviously, that a world's catching hardly will raise having precautionary limit within nearest one or two years. But there are elaborates nowadays in a field of biotechnology and pharmaceutics on base of a krill's raw material. It is known also that biological activity of krill's protein as a food product is more high of shrimp's, which breeding in Asia. That is mass breeding in aquaculture was one of obstacles for krill's food products penetration to world's market.
In 1996 was a First Indian Antarctic expedition. Its published materials have a data about krill's biochemical composition and other characteristics of all kinds its products for the practical use. According to regularly information received Australia, Canada, China, Panama, Chili, Ukraine are going to start a krill's fishery soon.
Russian prospects for the krill's fishery renew nоwаdays under arising demand on a world's and internal markets are not very high due to losing or becoming old-fashioned of special fleet, catching instruments, technologies and equipment. And as it seems, a scientific potential is the only not losing factor of fishery development, which was a base for the world's krill's fishery development for about forty years ago.
Biology and cephalopod fishery at
the Africa's North-West coast
North-West Africa's waters are one of the most world cephalopod fishery centers. If in other regions there is only one specie prevailed in landings, here near Mauritania there are octopus, squid and cuttlefish (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo vulgaris, Sepia officinalis). Morocco has been exported annually 33000-38000 tonnes of squid and cuttlefish (140-165 million $) and 52 000- 65 000 tonnes of octopus(208-296 million $). In Mauritania with its more short coastal line there are other figures accordingly: 5 000-7 000 (21-22 million $) and 27 000-38 000 tonnes (94 - 140 million $). In Morocco only have a cephalopod fishery annually 280-285 vessels. In spite of all this national licenses are not divided to species and issued on cephalopod in whole. A share of additional landings in not high (sea bream and other species - 15-25 %). In Mauritania annually have a fishery 60-100 refrigerating vessels and 25-35 chilling vessels not including primitive pirogues fishery. The refrigerating vessel has a length 37-45 metres, displacement 270-310 tonnes and engine capacity 600-900 kilowatt. For chilling vessels these figures are accordingly ; 25-30 metres, 160- 200 tonnes and 320-370 kilowatt. An additional landings are usually at all near 10-15 %.
Usual octopus inhabits in a coastal waters of North-West Africa from surface to depths 150 metres (rarely to 400 metres) mostly on a sandy and shell rocks grounds. Its main resources are concentrated at the south of former West Sakhara and at the north of Mauritania. The size of adult species is 10-30 centimetres and 0.5-10 kg weight. Their living time is 1-1.5 years. They eat mollusks, crabs, small fish and other species. The main centre of its fishery is in a zone between 18 degrees 30' and 22 degrees of north latitude with depths 30-60 metres. Their catching is by ground trawls and primitive fishery. A maximal octopus landings for Mauritania's waters by various methods is estimated 38 000-44 000 tonnes for 126-185 hours of fishery, and for Morocco waters 70 000-75 000 tonnes for 382-683 hours of fishery.
Usual squid or squid loligo reaches its body's length 45 centimeters (male) and 27 centimeters (female) with an usual weight of adult ones 100-400 gram and maximal 7 kg. It inhabits on the depths 20-150 metres. Their living time is one year. There are a special recommendations for their catching in a various seasons and even months. Their fishery is realized by trawls and other installations. The best time for their catching is morning and a beginning of evening. Their most reserves are at the north of Mauritania and at the south of former West Sakhara.
Usual cuttlefish - is a most large specie of this group in Atlantic. Its body length reaches 50 centimetres and a weight to 12 kg. Usual sizes in landings are 10-30 centimetres with a weight 0.5-1 kg. Their living time is 1-2 years. It is a ground specie, which inhabited at the depths 15-150 metres (usually - 20-60 metres). Cuttlefish eats by fish, crabs and sometimes mollusks and shrimp. Their catching is by trawls mainly as an additional landings to squid. The best periods of fishery are February-May and July-November. Their most concentrations are in Mauritania between 18 and 19 degrees of north latitude and in Morocco near 23 degrees 40' 28" of north latitude. Its average additional landings by fishery refrigerator vessels is 330-340 kg daily for one vessel, by chilling vessels - 150-290 kg. There is a considerable usual cuttlefish specialized additional landing 5900-7800 tonnes per year in a Senegal waters, where the landings raised in 90-s. In the peak of fishery the small trawlers catching is reached 400-800 kg for trawling or an average figure 100-140 kg per hour. In other months they are not more than 10-60 kg for an hour of trawling.
The most favourable cephalopod fishery period on a North-West Africa shelf are July-March with a peak in November-March. A most perspective fishery areas are 21-26 degrees of north latitude and 16-19 degrees of north latitude. For squids 1and cuttlefish with an additional landing of octopus it is most advisable to use a small vessels.
Sharks: emotions and economy
There are the next stereotypes of a usual thinking concerning fish kingdom: what is it- a cod, shark, tyljapia ? An answer is just ready: cod should be fried, shark- do not swim near it, tyljapia - to aquarium. And nobody will think cod is one of the most interesting fishes for aquarium, tyljapia is a fine object of ponds fish-breeding, and shark is catching fish of a great food value.
Let's speak about sharks and skates. There are for about 800 kinds of them approxi mately equally or 3 % of all 24 000 kinds of fishes. Their annual catching 1000 000 tonnes is 1 % of world's. Its most part consists of not large ground fishes with a length about one metre and some kilogram weight. But sometimes there are more large skates with a length to 6 metres, which were well acquainted by fishermen of 60-70s. It is very difficult to find them in sea now, but more frequently on the franks KFA.
Small ground sharks sometimes are at the depth about 3000 m and more, 1000 m in a day time and near a surface. Another interesting group is a sharks eating plankton: whale's, gigantic and with a big mouth. They are most large of sharks and fishes in general. After their death a bodies of first two are heavily defor med, and it is possible to take their remains for dinosaur's or sea serpent's. The disclosure of shark with a big mouth, which is not appears on the surface and inhabited at the depth of 200-1100 m. That rare shark was not known to science till 1976, when it swallowed a floating anchor of USA military ship near the Hawaiian Islands.
And at last about large (with 2 m long and more) predatory pelagic sharks. They are most scenic, dangerous, tasty and expensive. They are mako, white, dark blue, silk, with white feathers, fox, with a hammer's head and some others.
In 1975 the catch of sharks and skates of USSR was 59 000 tonnes, but usually it was about 20 000 tonnes annually as an additional landing. Their fishery can be realized by almost all kinds of fishery implements. So during tuna fishery in 70-80s of two tuna bases an additional catching of sharks was from 30 % to 70 % according official reports, but really it was more. Sometimes a gutted sharks have had been sold for Italy through the ports of Germany and Portugal for quite enough prices with an average volume of 100 000 tonnes. The demand for sharks in Italy had been raised due to their shortage. There are a little ones of mako sharks in ocean now. Due to ATLANTNIRO scientific investigations it was known about great resources of dark blue shark in ocean and its valuable food qualities and Italy wanted to buy it, but the collapse of the USSR have had led to a collapse of fishing industry and a moment was lost. Now the shortage of sharks for Italy have been trying to get a Greeks, Algerians and Egyptians. Italians would like to buy a dressed frozen sharks under such a tuna freezing (-40oC) and storage conditions (-18oC).
There are more sharks and skates in a markers of Japan, Italy, Spain, Polynesia, Western Africa states with a more high prices, which have been reported in an official statistic bulletins. It was supposed for a long time there was a main obstacle for a shark's eating due their ammonia smell of flesh, thus a fox sharks were non eatable. But now a fillet of a fox shark in USA supermarkets has a equal prices and even more as a flesh of swordfish. The ways of economy are inscrutable. It is the fact it is more profitable using of an additional sharks and skates landings than their using for fish meal or having overboard. It is not speaking already about dark blue sharks considerable resources, which are not using by fishery until.
AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR MONITORING STABILITY
AND TRIM OF AN OPERATING SHIP
Constant monitoring of stability and trim of ships at sea, forecasting of their changes are very important for ensuring safety of seafaring. In case of emergency for saving a vessel tiresome and complicated calculations are required.
As the calculations are very tiresome (especially for damaged vessels) a two-stage method was used. Previously mass calculations with systematic changing of loading characteristics and variants of flooding are made on the computer of designers of the System. These results are put into memory of the computer of a user in a compact form and are used for prompt finding a solution corresponding to arbitrary loading.
OVERALL DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM
When used aboard a ship the system is aimed at every-day service of ships operations and is very handy for a master.
On the basis of information on fuel, water, fish, etc. available aboard a ship, which is contained in daily reports sent from ships to shore by radio, the system calculates displacement, the centre of gravity coordinates, also trim and stability according to worked out algorithms. If the trim and/or stability do not meet the Maritime Register of Shipping Rules or are close to such condition, the system gives a warning to Safety Service to take timely preventive measures.
If an accident takes place, the work of the Safety Service becomes easier and quicker as the computer memory contains data of current loading of the ship (for the last twenty four hours) and an effective program to calculate trim and stability characteristics of a damaged vessel. This program makes possible calculating flooding of different compartments and accounting for water filtering to other spaces.
PROBLEMS SOLVED BY THE SYSTEM
Automated monitoring of stability and trim of ships at sea
Operation of Salvage Centre
Aboard a ship
As a simulator the system can be used for:
Basic Information for the System is:
As a result of its work the System will provide information on ship's stability and trim. It will also check if the ship meets safety criteria and will supply some more important information, all the operations will be performed within 1-2 minutes.
The System has been implemented for operation on IBM PC/AT/XT and combine "Ashore" and "Aboard" functions. Presently the System is successfully used in some shipping companies.
The System has been approved by Maritime Register of Shipping.
Setting of the marine transport vessels
In this article the author tells about verifying and corrective calculations of a vessels hulls due to corrosion wear and tear. He considers, that it is necessary to use an individual calculation analyze in order to find an additional reserves of a hull strength and its elements and for that to reduce the terms and a volume of repair. Its practically realized in a Special norms of admissible wear and tear and deformations, issued by Marine Fleet Central Research Institute from 1971 into vessels hull defecting practice, which have been elaborated individually for each other vessel or series.
New native and imported coverings for
the vessels protection from corrosion and been overgrowing
In this article the authors analyzes a corrosion protection as one of the main problems of vessels technical exploitation. Despite of various ways of corrosion protection, a varnishing and painting coverings have been remaining as the methods of a corrosion stability vessels constructions raising. Its share in a financial expenses for the protection renewing is nowadays more 80%. Researches describe a new kinds of native and imported coverings and their usage specification. But there is a problem of their possible forbidding with a presence of tin-organic tocsins, and some Russian and foreign firms from 1997 have begun their new kinds manufacturing without tin-organic tocsins presence.
Marine transport and ecological security
In this article's the author tells about international and Russian legislative base of sea environment preservation from pollution and its quantitative estimates of exploitative and possible emergency pollution. Its three parts tell about:
The ATLANTNIRO and the ATLANTIDA -
KALININGRAD fFISHERIES SCIENCE VESSELS
It is known to all, that native fishing industry now have a hard times. Fleet have been becoming old and breaking without equal replacement. 61 from 172 fishery vessels of the Kaliningrad region are exploited with more terms of service, and else 33 have an age of more 20 years. A total catching have been reducing. In 1991 it was 655 000 tonnes, but in 1998 293 000 tonnes only. Nevertheless, Atlantic fishery first of all still remains in a centre of our fishing industry strategic interests. From 6 millions tonnes of Russian fish consumer demand we can to catch in our economic zone 4 millions tonnes only. But there are expected a cod of the Barents Sea and Far Eastern whiting resources reducing, and it will be necessary to catch fish in economic zones of the Atlantic ocean and free fishery areas. Thus, a fish resources state and their exploitation optimal regime elaboration for the links of Russian economic zone have been becoming a first significance.
There was in former USSR a harmonious and most perfect in a world system of scientific and technical providing of rational and effective fishery, based on a state support and centralized management. But nowadays it is destroyed, and a high development countries ( Canada, Norway, Japan ) have been creating now such a systems. In the end of last year In Russia was again formed The State" Fishery Committee. And the research institutes of former Fishery ministry also are remained, among which there is ATLANTNIRO in Kaliningrad.
It have two scientific and research universal vessels the ATLANTNIRO and the ATLANTIDA, which were launched in 1987 in Germany. Their length is 62,2 metre, displacement- 1986 tonnes, and the capacity of two main engines - 1200 metres. They have on a boards a modern research and scientific equipment, for example oceanological complex Nail Brown, satellite equipment MEMOSAT, new hydrological probe Micro STD-3, powerful acoustic complex EK-500 Simrad and many others. The ATLANTNIRO have been represented our native maritime science at the periodical World Exhibition EXPO-98 in Lisbon in September 1998. Her representation there gave a possibility for showing to world publicity and scientific community, that Russia is on a front lines of ocean study and its biological resources mastering.
ANATOPTERUS PHARAO - MYSTERIOUS VERNIM
at the PACIFIC SALMON FISHERY
Salmon (Oncorhynchus) fishery in the North Pacific by drifter nets have been conducting for a long time. But an annual number of victims, which lost their marketable state after the Anatopterus pharao attacks, is 5-12%, and this is a great economic damage, because salmon annual catching is 800-900 thousands tonnes.
Scientists considered before, that attacks are from herring shark or fur seals. However, these attacks belong to Anatopterus pharao. This fish was described firstly in 1911 and named in Latin language by ichthyologist Tsugmaier. In this name there have been reflected its body construction unique specific, which differs it from other living nowadays bone fishes (more 20 000 ones) - full absence of dorsal fin. It has a long body such as snake without scale, with a big head and great dagger's fangs. The maximal Anatopterus pharao length is approximately 115 cm in North Pacific, 96 cm in North Atlantic and 105 cm in Antarctic waters. It inhabits a high 1000m ocean waters layer.
Till last time Anatopterus pharao was a rare fish, in 1983 there were 35 ones in all world museums. First reports about their catching in North Pacific were published in 1952 only. In 1953 an American scientist Khabbs and others had been analyzed a material about Anatopterus pharao from a various World ocean areas, and made a conclusion, that a small and a large ones belong to one specie. An author of this article at the end 90-s analyzed anew materials from various World ocean areas and made a conclusion, that each area (North Atlantic, North Pacific and the Indian ocean) there are its their own species, which differs even in the way of life.
Their biology is investigated very poor due to rarity. Information about Anatopterus pharao was published in 1971,1975,1977, 1984 after their catching, approved a hypothesis about the only in life spawn with a full eating stopping before, as a Pacific salmons and river eels. Anatopterus pharao is not a rare fish, it is a usual predatory on other fish. The next investigation of its biology, possible will permits to elaborate a tactic of their catching, which will be able to reduce the loses of a goods production.
El NINIO and ITS INFLUENCE on fFISHERY
in SOUTH EAST PACIFIC OCEAN
Oceanologysts have no until a common opinion for EL NIniO definition. In some cases this should be used for warm sea current designation, which have been intensified near Peru coast at the end of the year, in others as temperature increasing of surface on 4-7 degrees C. International scientific investigations Committee made an attempt to define EL NIniO criterions as an appearance of anomalous warm water near Peru coast with a subsequent weather and climate changes not only in Pacific, but in a whole world.
Thus, a warm waters of equatorial origin have been spreading periodically at the surface layers along Pacific coast of America. During last 50 years a pronounced warming was registered in 1953,1957-1958,1965, 1972-1973, 1976-1977, 1982-1983,1986-1987,1997-1998.
Most intensive EL NIniO were marked in 1957-1958, 1972-1973, 1976-1977, 1982-1983, 1986-1998 with water anomalies more 4 degrees and warm waters penetration to more southern latitudes. South-East part of Pacific Ocean is one of World ocean more productive areas. The base of Ecuador, Peru, Chili are landings of a small pelagic fishes as anchovy, horse mackerel, sardine and mackerel. Period 1950-1970 is connected with a fishery development in this region, when a common catching increased from 167 000 tonnes to 13,5 million tonnes. Landings decreased in 1973 to 3,2 million tonnes, but twenty years after in 1994 the catching reached 19,8 million tonnes. Landings reducing happened at the end of 1998, preliminary data to 7,6 million tonnes. That fluctuation is intimately related with oceanological habitation conditions of fish due to EL NIniO. It would be divided two stages of EL NIniO influence to the pelagic fish resources: first - temperature increasing of upper 100 m layer and fishes' redistribution in space ; second - fishes' death increasing due to fishes' living cycles violation. Anchovy have been moving to a coastal line 20 miles due to the warm water mass undertaking and staying there under the temperature 24-25 degrees C. As the temperature becomes higher, anchovy have been distributed on 100-150 m line, and its catching is very difficult by seiners. Contrary to anchovy, sardine of coastal Peru areas does not leave its traditional places of habitation and stays in a 23-26 degrees C waters, but in case of EL NIniO it may move to a coast and vise verse. High temperature anomalies more 3 degrees lead to its moving to north and central areas of Peru to south. Due to change of habitation areas and depths Peru's sardine catching decreased in 1983 in comparison of 1982 on 428 tonnes.
EL NIniO 1982-1983 had been seriously affected to Ecuador fishery results. At the end of 1982 in the fishing vessels landings have been disappeared sardine, which was absent till 1984. Mackerel also was absent in the landings of 1983. North part of Chilean zone was influenced by EL NIniO in 1982-1983 with sardine catching increasing on 1 043 000 tonnes due to its moving from the zone of Peru. Anchovy 325 thousands tonnes landings of 1981 decreased to 8 thousands in 1983.
Within EL NIniO warm waters spreading to south, in a coastal Peru's and North Chili there have been appearing new species as yellow-fin tuna, skipjack, Pacific manta, dolphins, which are the warm waters indicator. The second stage of EL NIniO influence fish resources and fishery caused by high roe, larvae and young fishes death due to multiplying conditions change. After-effects of the second stage have been effected to fishery during some years. EL NIniO have an effect not only on Peru, Chili and Ecuador fish industry resulting activity, but economic subsequences for fish meal and fish oil world prices.
CITY and the PORT of HAMBURG
In this article the author tells about his impressions after the visiting Free Hanzean city and the port of Hamburg. It is situated on the Alster and Elba coasts in 102 km from its estuary, has a second in Germany population (1,7 million people). Hamburg first of all is harbour (port), which have been calls the Gates to the world. It is occupied almost 1/8 of city's territory and includes 10 port areas and 37 artificial basins with piers and berths. The length of berth area is for about 100 km with a depth to 15 metres. 320 sea vessels are able to moor simultaneously to its berths. Approximately 12 000 sea vessels with a displacement to 65 000 tonnes from various world countries call annually to the port of Hamburg.
There are for about 20 with a love restored ships in museum harbour. There is an old tunnel under Elba with a length 132 m and width 27 metres, which was opened else in 1911, and it is possible to walk free there to docks and berths. The day of Berth is celebrated in May annually within eight centuries from 1189 , when Emperor Barbarossa gave to city a significant privileges.
Hamburg have a delightful architecture and many various sights, a most high in Germany living standard. One of them is an old Fish Market in Alton area, where fish have been selling from 1703 strictly from 6 to 10 a.m. It is a modern large city with a hundred years international ties. Its culture, theatres, museums and galleries are always full of life. Three times per year annually ( in spring, in summer and in winter) there take place a biggest in Europe Fair DOM with its traditions from 14th century. This year in February there was with a great success a Big Amber Exhibition from the Kaliningrad region (Russia), which have had visited near 300 000 people.
Trading with a whole world city has rich history. Its symbol is a delightful St. Michael church. The University of Hamburg was opened in IX century. In 1558 there was founded a Stock Exchange. In 1616 firstly in Germany there have begun to publish a weekly newspaper. City is a centre of hotel economy. There are situated the best hotels of Germany. And every visitor of Hamburg takes away a part of Hansean way of life.
NIGHT WITHOUT SPECIAL EVENTS
Sailor's life is not sugar. But ocean is able to present to man something, what sets to forget the price, which we are paying to it. But here is only one night, within that there were no some special events.
The author tells his impressions about squid fishing on jigger in the Gulf of Guinea. His story devoted to the unity and diversity of West Africa ocean area underwater world, such as gray triggerfish, lantern anchovy (Myctophidae), which have a great number of species. For example, a very strange sea animals - squids with a length approximately 1,5 metre (Tizanotevtis rombus) live in pairs only: male and female. Among them there are also Squid Bartrama, squid with a wings as a hands. These squids two species divided Atlantic on a zones of influence. In the North and South Atlantic to the south and north from 21o C isotherms is inhabited a squid Bartrama, in a tropics is inhabited a squid with a wings as a hands. But they change the areas of their inhabitation in winter and in summer.
Ocean squid is a very mysterious animal, and there are more questions about him, than replies for specialists. Squids die after the first spawning ,as a salmons. And it is a tragic pay for their struggle for existence, a competitiveness with a large predatory of other pelagic fishes.
THE VITYAZ' on the PREGOL
Scientific vessel the Vityaz' with a really Russian name have brought a great contribution to the ocean study of world's history. Many school-children of a world have been read about she in their text-books on geography, many inhabitants of most far Earth's areas have been known about our country due to her voyages. The vessel's life is very short, not more than 20-30 years, and only the best of them remain as a museums. In 1999 there will be celebrated the 60th anniversary of the Vityaz', and here is a calendar of her wonderful life.
In a future the Museum will be one of the main Kaliningrad sights with a scientific and cultural complex including sailing centre, cafe souvenirs shops, sea handicrafts centre, fish market and various circles and clubs on interests.