A Window to Russia
Victor N. Koshelev, Andrey N. Moshkov
The idea of the ferry terminal in Baltiysk has been approved by the Government
of the Russian Federation only in 10 years after the launch of the idea.
Such a ferry terminal will allow attracting traffic from Europe and America
to the Kaliningrad Region for Byelorussia, Lithuania, Russia, and Asia.
Its use strategy should focus on the development of cargo and passenger
shipment with a greater share of passenger traffic between all the ports
of the Baltic Sea within a single transport system of Europe. In its turn,
it will require a rapid development of overland transport communications
in accordance with modern standards, the motor road Baltiysk-Kaliningrad
on the first place. The ferry line should be organized in the frame of
international transport corridors. The analysis of commodity turnover
between Russia and the Baltic states leads to the conclusion of Germany,
Finland, Lithuania, and then Poland, Latvia, and Sweden to be the main
trade partners of Russia. The forecast of movement of goods made on the
basis of the above analysis shows a decrease of traffic several times.
The same refers to the passenger traffic. At present the major part of
tourists to the Kaliningrad Region arrives by air and by road via Poland
and Lithuania, though it causes a lot of trouble on the border. The ferry
line giving the perspective of cruises it is expected that every third
tourist will arrive to the Kaliningrad Region by sea. Development of the
ferry terminal in Baltiysk supposes a construction of a modern passenger
terminal and other structures for cargo and passenger ferries in addition
to those for cargo handling. Cargo vessels can be handled in the port
of Vostochny. This organization of cargo and passenger traffic creates
conditions for the complex development of the Kaliningrad Region, for
the development of international tourism and recreational territories.
Sustainability of these processes can be attained by inclusion of the
Kaliningrad Region to the transportation network of the Baltic Region
which is the main factor for access to the unified economic zone of Europe,
development of transport and service, tourism, connection with Russia,
as well as with European, Asian and American countries.
Variants for the Development Strategy
of the Port Complex of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad possesses a developed port complex for various cargo handling,
containers excluding. The ports of Kaliningrad are connected to the Baltic
Sea by the Sea Channel of 42 km in length, 50-80 m in width, and 9 m in
depth. The width and the depth of the channel allow only single-direction
navigation for vessels of up to 170 m in length and up to 8 m in draught.
The capacity of the channel is of two convoys per day in both directions.
City ports are connected to the road network by the municipal port road,
the technical condition of which is unsatisfactory on some parts of it.
There is required an access to the circumurban road and an additional
crossing over the river Pregel.
The railroad network of the Kaliningrad Region is of an excess capacity
as far as the flow of traffic decreased by two thirds compared to 1998.
Infrastructure of the railroads is worn out due to the lack of investment
and technical servicing.
The present port complex of the Kaliningrad Region has sufficient moorage
capacity. In order to increase its capacity for handling containers it
is recommended to construct a special container terminal which would also
serve for handling Ro-Ro cargo. In the strategy of the port development
main attention should be paid to the increase of carrying capacity of
the Sea Channel and choosing a place in the port for handling container/Ro-Ro/railway
cargo. There are considered three variants:
- 1. Development of the Channel and specialized container/Ro-Ro/railway
terminal on the basis of the existing port complex;
- 2. Construction of the ferry terminal in Baltiysk;
- 3. Construction of the ferry terminal in Svetly.
The second and the third variants are considered as an alternative to
the first variant.
Everything relating the development of the Channel is deemed obligatory
for all three variants of the port complex development.
IBSFC Session 28
IBSFC Session 28 was held in Berlin, 9-13 September 2002. All members
of the Gdansk Convention 1973 participated in the session. There also
arrived a Russian delegation of 15 participants.
The Commission attracted attention of Poland and Estonia to inadmissibility
of exceeding national catch quotas and those stated by IBSFC. Quotas for
catch of herring, sprat, cod, and salmon for 2003 in the zones of the
Convention member-countries were fixed. Some quotas were reduced due to
the evaluation of fish stocks.
There were considered IBSFC recommendations on technical measures of
cod catch regulating.
Resolution on the strategy of Baltic salmon catch pays much attention
to its reproduction and fishery. A resolution on additional amount of
farmed salmon and its selective catch with a simultaneous decrease of
industrial catch was adopted. Quotas for such additional amounts were
distributed and the terms of these quotas usage were defined. In order
to distinguish between wild and farmed salmon, the latter must be marked
by adipose fin clipping. IBSFC and the parties of the Convention will
investigate possibilities for financial support of the general fin-clipping
On the fishery policy of Chile
Yu. V. Chuksin
In 1947 Chile and Peru passed the law on a 200-mile fishing zone. A constant
increase of catch within this zone resulted in an evident reduction of
fish stocks there. Since the 1970s these countries have been made repeated
attempts to ground their right to possess living marine resources in the
open sea bordering their 200-mile zones, and to control transfrontier
stocks management. There were taken various measures in restriction of
catch for foreign fishing companies in the open sea, extrusion their fleet
from there and increase of fish migration in the 200-mile zone. Measures
taken by the government of Chile on restriction of fishing for Spanish
vessels resulted in a prolonged conflict with Spain. The USSR was also
accused of excess the catch limits in the open sea. EU was unsuccessful
in its striving for the right to directly access the resources of Chile's
The crisis of fishery in Chile increased negative attitude towards foreign
fishing in the open sea near the zone of Chile. This is yet another example
of impossibly high usage of resources by own means to increase hostile
treatment of foreign fishery and to attempt to reduce operations of foreign
fleet in the open sea.
In 1977 the USA, Canada and EU countries established 200-mile fishery
zones in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Soviet
fishery industry lost these close, most productive and economically efficient
regions at once. A long crisis of the branch began. Reduction of the fishing
area, decease of catches made our fishermen to look for and develop new
distant fishing grounds, as well to increase costs. The industry gradually
became unprofitable and subsidised. The state made efforts to compensate
losses and maintain the scale of oceanic fishery. But the measures taken
could just delay the crash. The situation was worsened by the general
crisis of economy. By 1985 Soviet industry has got depressed. Perestroika,
the last attempt to restore the economy, started. It turned out to be
inefficient. The USSR disintegrated. Economy was split into national pieces.
In 1991 there started a radical economic reform. Liberalisation of prices
and uncontrollable privatization formed the basis if that reform. Redistribution
and stealing property were of an ungovernable character. The crisis continued.
Industries survived by the state granting including fishery, were in the
most serious situation. The number of vessels of fishing, processing,
transporting, searching, and assisting fleet reduced to the minimum indices.
The fishery regions are limited to just Russian territorial and coastal
waters, as well as some regions in the North Atlantic Ocean. An open expansion
of foreign companies to Russian territorial waters takes place. The fishing
industry failed - its present position is dismal, its future is uncertain.
Commercial fish Hoplostetus atlanticus
Ludmilla I. Perova, AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad
Since 1975 Hoplostetus atlanticus has been known in Russia. The USSR caught
it in Australian waters where the catch was of over 4,000 tons. By 1989
the catch has reduced to 1.1 thousand tons, and finally fishing stopped
due to the problem of sale. Food value and medical and biological properties
of Hoplostetus atlanticus were examined at Kiev Institute for Nutrition
Hygiene and at AtlantNIRO in Kaliningrad. Meat of Hoplostetus atlanticus
is tasty and its gastronomical characteristics are perfect. However, biochemical
analysis of the tissue fat showed that it contains (up to 40%), 80% of
which is wax. Normally, fish fat should contain not more than 2% of the
unsaponifiable matters. Conclusion of the Kiev Institute for Nutrition
Hygiene states that fish tissues contain substances and toxic compounds
delaying growth of animals and provoking a serious diarrhea. Thus, Hoplostetus
atlanticus was declared an inedible fish, that is why all investigation
of the technology of its processing has been ceased and fishing stopped.
However, fat of Hoplostetus atlanticus is possible to be used in perfume
industry as a substitute of ambergris and jojoba, in textile and pharmaceutical
industry, as well as oil in machine building.
Food Biotechnology - A Perspective
Trend Towards Training Specialists For Seafood
Processing Prof. O. Mezenova, PhD., Kaliningrad State Technical University
Food biotechnology is a perspective trend towards food industry development
in the Kaliningrad Region and training qualified specialists for which
the Kaliningrad State Technical University (KSTU) offers a new speciality
in "Food Biotechnology" training engineers in the area of hydrocoles
biotechnology on the first place.
Timeliness of biotechnological processing of hydrocoles arises from the
analysis of the results of the last two international fishery exhibitions
in St-Petersburg and Moscow. In Moscow KSTU successfully presented its
biotechnological products made with liquid smoke of the new generation.
Qualified engineers in biotechnology will conduct their professional work
in the area of producing biologically active substances (BAS), organization
of biotechnological processes, environmental protection, assessment of
food supplements and medical products quality.
As far as biotechnology is primarily oriented to processing of non-traditional
and little used raw materials, its qualified development in the Kaliningrad
Region will allow to organize a complex non-waste production, increase
cost efficiency of the raw material, etc.
Besides of training specialists at KSTU, organization of an original
co-ordinating centre for food biotechnology on the basis of a research
laboratory is deemed topical. Marketing strategy of the laboratory will
aim at bioproducts market penetration, and be based on the scientific
image of the University and cost efficiency.
Co-operation between Russian regions
All fishermen of Russia are aware of the problems in the Far East where
fishermen are left by the state for the mercy of fate. The main problem
is in survival in the existing hard circumstances the way out of which
is in poaching and smuggled sale of seafood abroad. Far East Regional
Centre for Business Co-operation was created with the goal to solve urgent
problems of fishermen. The Centre undertook food and material and technical
supply of the fishing fleet having concluded an agreement between the
Rostov and Kamchatka regions on reciprocal delivery on the first stage.
The second stage was devoted to the design and production of samples of
the urgently required fishing gear. The third stage will deal with organisation
of production on marine resources processing in the South of Russia. For
this a production complex with 9 buildings and spur-tracks is prepared.
The Centre has also started the design and building of fishing vessels
with the perfected technical characteristics compared to those used earlier.
The main advantage of the new vessels: they are assembled of the parts
made in Russia which are cheaper and always available as spare parts.
The vessels of new type have already attracted attention of some African
countries and one of Kaliningrad companies.
Besides, there was designed a hydraulic dredge — cheap, highly productive,
For the North and Far East of Russia the Centre started producing a cross-country
vehicle: even when 50% of its devices and units are out of order it is
still able to move.
A hard way to managing ability
Nowadays, the functioning of organizations is characterized with tough
competition and a quick change of the economic situation. In such terms
organizations have to solve a great deal of problems connected with insufficient
effectiveness of the existing management system. Introduction of the integrated
management system helps to solve these problems. It is based on the system
approach to the problem of raising the effectiveness of the organizations
management. The main task is in integrating various management elements
fulfilling their specific tasks, into one system and development and usage
of the general approaches in the complex organization management system.
System approach usage allows to define the main problems: necessity to
consider requirements of all sections of the organization, construction
of the organization's target system, increasing demand for co-ordination
of all sections functioning under the condition of a rapid change of the
environment. The contents and a set of actions to be taken in the process
of management, are quite various. However, this diversity is brought to
the usage of uniform activities constituting a management cycle. Forming
integrated management passes several obligatory stages: definition of
the organization's targets, development of the functions system necessary
for the targets achievement, creation of the functional model of the organization,
constructing the organization management structure, development of the
documents circulation system, regulation organization on the basis of
controlling. Every stage of the integrated management creation should
involve introducing information technology, i.e. forming corporate information
system. This long and hard process is vital, and it will be individual
for every single organization.
WHY VESSELS ARE REGISTERED UNDER A FOREIGN
Alexandr Zherebko, lawyer, Klaipeda
Everybody knows about a possibility to register a vessel under a foreign
ensign, but the reasons for that sometimes remain unclear. Actually, every
ship-owner can have his own reasons, but there are also some common ones,
stipulated mainly by the practice, e.g. provision for the vessel inaccessibility
in case of seizure or penalty, avoidance of income declaration, immediate
re-selling of the vessel, avoidance or reduction of the income tax, etc.
All the countries which register vessels, can be divided into two groups:
those with a clo