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The Fishing Kaliningrad
One could not fail noticing that for many years there have not been ships waiting for unloading by the moorings of the Kaliningrad port. Better say the ships arrive but very rarely and it seems that the moorings remain idle. One decade was enough to ruin the balance of the established infrastructure of the port of Kaliningrad. The city has exhausted its industrial resource that obtained during the Soviet period. Not having further development and, more than that, any development potential, the ports, fleets, fishing and transport complexes became unclaimed. The authorities have changed their priorities of the economical development of the region for the sphere of trading, rendering of services and humanitarian assistance. The industry was gradually degrading. The wish to shift the problems onto the central authorities and not to acknowledge their own impotence happened to be the only maneuver of the regional administration. But the reproaches cast upon the central power turned out to be ill-considered and irresolute and the centre claimed that the Kaliningrad region is not able to use the granted privileges, consequently, it does not deserve them and soon will be deprived of them.
The collapse of the leading regional industry can be considered reality. If there was a book devoted to the history of the fishing industry of Kaliningrad the shortest but most weighty chapter could have been the one about those who happened to be at the head of the industry in 1999 and which when put in a nut shell could say "They buried that what intelligent and devoted to their cause and the people ones have been creating for many years".
Nobody was bold enough to oppose the sharp changes which are harmful for such a huge and specific industry. The policy of self-determination of the fishing enterprises failed as far back as in the beginning of the 90-s. Having realized it then nobody tried to stop the chaos, to create the modern strategy of industry development and to rule it into the more perspective course.
The fishing and transport fleets only 10 years ago were the main power of the Kaliningrad region. They were managed strictly under the state control and this was justified not only by the economical system of the country but also by the principles of the strategic construction, development and management of the industry. The state was the owner of the fleet and nobody disputed this ownership.
Mutual guarantee of the enterprise leaders and governmental officials lay in the basis of the fleet privatization. On average in the privatization period the price which the new owners paid for a vessel was about USD 20 000. The net unaccountable profit from the resale of one vessel would amount to minimum USD 50 000.
As for Kaliningrad - one could buy such vessels from AO Zapryba, AO Rybprognoz, AO Kaliningradrybprom, AO MariNPO. These are companies that received the main part of the fleet after it had been privatized. The first to get rid of their vessels were Kaliningradrybprom and MariNPO. Rybprognoz changed its owners and its name for Atlantrybflot and all these years has been trying to find its way and a foot-hold in the business. The enterprise lost a considerable portion of its fleet. But the most interesting is happening to the leader of the regional fishing industry - AO Zapryba. According to the expert evaluation its main problem is people, e.g. management, who have not the least wish for the enterprise to develop successfully. And the most frightening thing is that they have no idea of how to run the enterprise. Also what matters is that the shareholders of Zapryba are not interested in survival of the company.
It is worth mentioning two most progressive fishing companies: Westrybflot and For. They managed to build successful business, today their work is profitable and their fleets are even expanding.

Integrated Coastal Zone Management — the way for cooperation
Sergey Shibaev, Konstantin Tylik, David Johnson
The intensive exploitation of the marine resources during the recent decades has resulted in the situation when fish catching turned out to be just one of many coastal activities among which there are extraction of oil, gas, other minerals, shipping, construction of hydro power engineering objects, ports, dikes, enterprises which discharge their wastes into the sea water. The interaction between the various sea resources users causes conflicts by creating spatial hindrances and competition and polluting the environment and resulting in degradation of the ecological systems on the whole. Due to this the knowledge of hydrobionts biology only is not sufficient for their effective protection and rational usage. There should be a complex approach which in respect of water ecological systems has been put into practice in various countries in the form of programs of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).
ICZM is a method of searching for solutions for protection of a unique system comprised of on-land objects (beaches, dunes, marshes), the coast itself and estuaries and also the water area being in this or that way connected with the coast (exclusive economic zone - EEZ) on the basis of harmonization of all the various types of nature exploitation. It is evident that realization of such an approach requires specialists with peculiar qualification.
Education institutes of Great Britain have been training specialists on coastal zones for a long time by now and the Marine Faculty of the Southampton Institute suggested to apply their experience for the purpose of improvement of training of specialists on water biological resources and aquaculture of the Faculty of Biological Resources and Nature Exploitation of the Kaliningrad State Technical University.
The project presupposed studying of the system of the ecological education in the UK, in particular, in the sphere of the ecological management; acquaintance with the environment protection practice on the national, regional and local levels and also with the activity of the environment protection institutes. Apart from that it was planned to develop the training programs on the coastal zones management with the purpose of inclusion of them in the curricula of the KSTU.
The implementation of the project resulted in improvement of the training programs for ichthyologists on account of inclusion in the curricula of new topics and sections relating to exploration of the marine resources (not only biological ones), methods of analyzing and solving conflicts between the nature users in the coastal zones. Participation in the project provided the Russian side with the access to a big scope of foreign literature on the above issues which, in fact, does not exist in Russia. At present new training aids are being developed in the KSTU. Also the participants of the project gave lectures on the matters of the coastal zones ecology and methods of zones protection in two countries to the students of both institutes.
Fund "Know How" of the British Council for the Regional Academic Partnership which supports such projects estimated the Southampton-Kaliningrad one as of the best among the total of 95 analogous projects.
The KSTU and the Southampton Institute decided to continue their fruitful cooperation. There are plans to start in the nearest future a joint project which would involve more partners from different countries, mainly of the Baltic region, having the experience in exploration of the coastal zones ecology and in the management of the zones.

Konstantin Tylik
From 21 till 25 of June 2000 in the exhibition center Lenexpo in S.-Petersburg there was held VII international specialized exhibition Inrybprom-2000 dedicated to the modern methods of reproduction and utilization of aqua biological resources. The exhibition was organized by the State Fishery Committee of Russian Federation, VAO Lenexpo and AO Expocenter.
More than 450 Russian and foreign companies from 25 countries displayed their products and developments. Among them there were the biggest Russian fishery and shipbuilding enterprises, scientific-research organizations.
The opening ceremony was attended by the Governor of S.-Petersburg Vladimir Yakovlev, Chairman of Goskomrybolovstvo Y. Sinelnik and other officials. They noted that the exhibition is to show the modern level of national and international achievements of the fishery science and practice and to become a link with the future of the Russian fishery and aquaculture.
At the press-conference for the mass-media telling about the exhibition Y.P. Sinelnik briefed on a number of the important provisions of the Russian fishery policy which, to his mind, should be brought into the practice in the coming years. According to him the deep-water fishery is beneficial for any country. It means jobs, needed protein products and money resources. There are plans for the return of the Russian fleet to a number of regions of the World Ocean. At the present time when the stocks of our main commercial fish species - pollock and cod - are decreasing they forecast 10% increase of the total Russian seafood catching in 2000 on account of growing of the deep-water fishery. To stimulate this process they provide for measures of the state support for the domestic companies for the whole pay-back period (from 7 to 12 years) so that to build the fishing fleet in Russia. Another important issue is the fight against the illegal catching and export of seafood that, according to the expert estimations, causes damages to the country amounting to USD 700 mln. In this respect such measures as the satellite monitoring of vessels' movements, obligatory trans-shipment of valuable fish only in the Russian ports and others are of major importance.
Within the framework of the exhibition there was scientific-technical symposium "Modern means of reproduction and utilization of aqua biological resources" whose four sections were "Raw materials resources and fishery", "Fishing fleet", "Processing, packing, transportation, storage and sales of fish products and seafood" and "Aquaculture of XXI. Acclimatization and reproduction of fish stocks".

Outbreak of Сommon Triggerfish Population off Atlantic African Сoast in the 60-s.
In the end of the 60-s off the Atlantic African coast there happened a sudden dramatic increase in the population of common triggerfish which in certain areas became a dominating species of the ichthyocene. It caused concern in the countries of the Atlantic coast as their coastal waters had been filled with an organism which was considered not eatable and which appeared in the region in unprecedented quantities. To their mind it meant danger of extinction for the local valuable commercial fish species. The alarming signals were sent from Togo, Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sierra-Leone, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau. One of the reasons for such a phenomenon was considered a displacement of the ecological balance of the waters of the Western African coast which had resulted from the dramatic industrial and everyday pollution.
Before the increase of the population and massive wide spreading near the Atlantic African coast common triggerfish had not been given much attention. The article gives the main details on the biology of this insufficiently explored species based on the author's own data and other sources. The main supply of the information were expeditions of AtlantNIRO carried out from 1969 till 1987.
Common triggerfish distributes in the Eastern Atlantic from Great Britain to Angola, in the Western Atlantic - from New Scotland to Argentina, it is also found on the continental shelf and by the islands. There are cases when the fish was caught in the ocean deep waters.
Before the outbreak of its population common triggerfish was considered as a bottom fish. It inhabits the coastal area, areas with sandy bottom, outlets of rocks, stony and coral ridges.
The data obtained after the population outbreak contained a lot of new and unknown about the biology of this fish, especially its bio-social relationships. It turned out that common triggerfish can be considered as a typical representative of mass shoal nerito-pelagic fish doing migrations of two types: seasonal along the coast and daily vertical.
Studying proved that common triggerfish lives by temperature 17-28oC and salinity above 33%. The fish avoids salty and desalinated waters and in periods when the cold water intensively raises to the shelf and waters get very desalinated common triggerfish migrates along the coastal line and in the open sea. As for the vertical distribution there are two bio-masses distinguished - inhabiting pelagia and bottom.
The yearly distribution of common triggerfish gatherings along the African coast considerably depends on the seasonal changes of water temperature. The highest concentration in certain areas is found in the beginning of the warm season and during cold seasons the population decreases up to the complete disappearance. Senegal enjoys the highest level of bio-mass in August-September, Ghana and Ivory Coast - in November-January. Waters of Togo, Sierra-Leone, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau also witness seasonal migrations of common triggerfish gatherings.
As from the time of development of the intensive catching off the Western Africa in the 60-s till the beginning of the 70-s the population of common triggerfish was so low that it was not in any way interesting as a fishery object, even potential. After the population outbreak the bio-mass of this species reached the level of the most massive commercial fish of the area such as jack mackerel and sardinella. The common triggerfish fishery began. The technological studies showed that common triggerfish can be used for manufacturing of various food products of high taste standards. The suspicion about this fish being poisonous is groundless. The skinless fillet of common triggerfish has got a good commodity appearance. In the muscles there is a complex of ferments which are conducive to the storage of fish at the initial processing stage and in the frozen state.
But in spite of big stocks the fishery has not become large-scale. The main reason was technical difficulties connected with processing of triggerfish due to its hard outer covering (strong skin tightly covered with scales) and thorny fins.
The reason for the outbreak of triggerfish population off the Western African coast can be explained in the following way. The 70-s were the beginning of a new period of "zonal circulation" in the atmospheric processes. It resulted in a drought that decreased river flow in Western Africa. This decrease in the river flow resulted in extension of a reproduction part of triggerfish natural habitat. The competition between separate reproduction pairs became less. Also the decrease of the content of solids in the water has a positive effect on the productivity of spawning. All these beneficial factors resulted in a dramatic expansion of the species. This increase of the triggerfish population influenced the structure of fish stocks in certain regions where it began to occupy the dominating position. There even happened a reduction of the traditional commercial fish stocks, such as sardinella, and the level of catches of these species was affected. In the following years one could witness the population decreasing, especially after 1975 when precipitation level began to increase. Today triggerfish again is a scarce species of no industrial importance as it used to be before the 60-s.

Up-to-date Equipment and Devices of Sea Electronics
Y.V. Orlov, Chief Designer of Marine Electronics Dept. of Experimental Designing Bureau of JSC MariNPO
The designers of the marine electronics department of the experimental designing bureau of the marine scientific industrial fishing enterprise (MariNPO) are developing the following up-to-date equipment and devices for the trawl catching being at the present time almost the only method of the industrial catching:

  • - equipment for the instrument panel attestation of the trawl systems;
  • - devices for industrial catching (trawl probes and devices controlling the filling);
  • - devices used for searching and exploration, including underwater television.

The main purpose of creating this equipment is to increase the efficiency of catching, e.g. to gain the best result by the most economic means. The main task proceeding from this purpose is to provide the highest result within the time unit and it can not be solved by the special vessels without the special equipment.
The up-to-date equipment can provide an increase in the efficiency of trawl catching tackle on account of improving the tactics and technique of the catching process by means of reducing the energy consumption and non-production time losses during the process of casting and retrieving of the trawl, improving the aiming of the trawl in the vertical plane and also reducing escape of fish from the trawl during the retrieving time.
The following tasks will be solved during the process of development of the equipment:

  1. Creation of the system of instrument attestation of trawls and their tackle enabling the objective comparison of the parameters and characteristics of trawls, trawl beams and combination of warp-board-trawl with the representation of the results on the colorful monitor and printer in the form of tables and charts, carrying the note of the region and time of experiment.
  2. Creation of the technological trawl system enabling the manual and semi-automated regimes of the trawling stages.
  3. Development and manufacturing of separate complexes and systems comprising the measuring trawling complex (MTK) which can be used on their own during catching or for the exploration purposes.
  4. Reduction of parameters of weight and dimensions and energy consumption from the autonomous energy sources and vessel's network on account of application of the modern element base in the electronic schemes.

The measuring trawling complex (MTK) consists of the combination of jointly operating technical devices and their parts placed on trawls, beams and vessel's board. Each of them is purposed for the independent performance of the specific tasks:

  1. The system of determination of the trawl parameters based on the multi-parameter trawl probe.
  2. The system of control of warp parameters (length, effort, speed). The basis of the system is the complex for determination of the length of steel ropes.
  3. The system of control over spatial-temporal situation of the trawl beams. The basis of this system is the beam equipment for the depth and distance between the beams.
    MTK complex is intended for control over the spatial-temporal situation of the trawl and beams in relation to each other and also of the sea surface and bottom during the process of casting-retrieving and trawling.

The complex (or its separate components) can be used both in the industrial fishing when giving a work out to the catching tactics and technique and during the comparative trials of trawls and their parts.
The principle of operation of the complex is as follows. The information from the beams is transmitted to the trawl leadrope through the hydro-acoustic line by means of radio impulses on the frequency of 75 kHz and from the trawl to the vessel's board - through the cable of the vessel's winch of the trawl probe. The depth of the trawl and each of the beams is determined with the help of a linear semiconducting strain gauging sensor for hydrostatic pressure of DD 2.5 type of D 16 type the upper limits of which are 2.5 and 16 mPa respectively. The information about availability of fish in the trawl orifice and reflecting objects determining the vertical opening, the distance to the bottom, etc. is received by means of echo sounding based on the time during which the sounding impulse goes to the aim and back.

Shipbuilding in Germany
Vadim Gazizov
The 29th of December, 1999 was the day of an 115-anniversary of the shipbuilding industry of Germany. On this date in 1884 the Union of German Shipyards was established which by passage of time united almost all the biggest shipyards of the country. In result of consolidation of the efforts in the sphere of shipbuilding, especially in the field of development of new shipbuilding technologies, in the end of the last century Germany became the world leader in the said spheres and its technical experience was widely used by many shipbuilding companies. The impulse for the rapid development of shipbuilding and consolidation of the efforts of all the German shipyards laid in the important political and, more important, economic reasons.
1882 was the year when in the major part of the European countries the economic crises came and lasted till 1885. The demand for German steel and steel products became considerably lower. The level of the sea cargo transportation also reduced. World shipbuilding and shipping were in crisis. All these affected the German shipbuilding which actually collapsed.
So that to improve the situation many industrial associations were founded. For instance in 1872 they established the North German Shipbuilders Union which in the beginning included shipyards of the Baltic Sea. Later this organization transformed into the German Shipbuilders Union that mainly was dealing with the social-political problems of the industry and, in fact, became the ancestor of the shipbuilding companies of the today's Germany.
At the present time the leading role in the German shipbuilding belongs to such firms as the German Ship Owners (Verband Deutscher Reeder - VDR), the Shipbuilding and Marine Technics Union (Verband fur Schiffbau und Meerestechnik - VSM) and, of course, the German Lloyd (Germanischer Lloyd). Everything what happens in the German shipbuilding is connected with the practical activity of these companies. Due to this their competent opinion in respect of the main trends and results in the German shipbuilding on the edge of the third millennium is of importance for many economists and experts in the whole world.
As a result of the recommendations of the German Ship Owners Union the German Government allocated subsidies and in 1998 the German trade fleet was considerably renewed, especially its container carriers. 113 new vessels with the total tonnage of 1.8 mln tons were put into operation. More over, 25 ships of various types were sold to the foreign ship owners. But expansion of the fleet brought about another problem. At present only 10 000 people are employed on the German trade vessels and this is insufficient. The demand for qualified specialists still exceeds the supply.
The German Ship Owners Union comprises of 400 entrepreneurs and covers the whole territory of Germany. It employs more than 70 000 people and its capital amounts to DM 16 bln.
Out of the total number of vessels of various types built in Germany in 1998 foreign orders amounted for 62% and 44% of this portion were from the EU countries while the volume of Asian orders reduced by 21%. According to experts this proves that in the nearest future the centre of the world shipbuilding will start to shift to Asia.
Another authority in the German shipbuilding is Germanischer Lloyd who says that the financial year of 1998 was characteristic of a considerable growth of the main parameters of shipping and shipbuilding and also some consolidation of major representatives of the German shipbuilding industry. In spite of the financial-economic crisis in Asia and worsening of the global financial relations the volume of the financial operations of Germanischer Lloyd that is involved in the matters of vessels classification has increased by 3% and amounted to DM 277.9 mln against DM 270.5 mln in 1997.
Besides its classification activity Germanischer Lloyd in engaged in such economic spheres as sea shipbuilding, multipurpose marine technics, various researches and developments of new technologies. Every second container carrier in the world is built with participation of Germanischer Lloyd. 25 of them are the most up-to-date vessels of this type which can carry up to 20 TEU each. Apart from that Germanischer Lloyd owns 25% of all newly built multi-purpose vessels and 20% of gas tankers.
Apart from the problems related to the practical shipbuilding an important role in the activity of Germanischer Lloyd belongs to developments and researches in the sphere of ensuring of seafaring safety. Availability of positive tendencies in the statistics of sea accidents proves that in this sphere as well Germanischer Lloyd has reached good results.

Sailing Ship of Tarasov
V.V. Tarasov, B.D. Tarasov, Atlantic company. Kiev
The fuel consumption of one freezing trawler 104 m long uses up to 25 tons per day. Based on today's prices the daily fuel expenses will constitute USD 7000-8000. A distant voyage to Australia or America or to the far away fishing grounds of, for example, Antarctic will cost more than USD 600 000. It is very difficult to make any profit on such business. From the cheapest transport means the fleet has turned into the expensive and unprofitable one.
Energy equipment of the new sailing ship (project of Atlantic company, Odessa, Ukraine) per 1 ton of displacement is 50-60 times as much as of old sailing ships. Irrespective of dimensions the ship can be managed by one person. The modern sailing ship is able to reach the speed twice as much as of old sailing ships and modern motor vessels and to save up to 90% of fuel.
The objective of the invention is to create a sailing ship of the new generation being free from the drawbacks of old sailing ships among which:

  • - big draft;
  • - big drift and list;
  • - unsatisfactory stability and manoeuvrability;
  • - low speed;
  • - lack of full reliability of express stop of the vessel.

It became necessary to create a speedy and safe ship and to make it free from list and drift, to increase its stability and maneuvrability, to improve the safety of its operation not increasing the draft, to make the vessel economic and environmentally friendly - on the basis of all these for it to be able to exclude motor vessels from seas and oceans.
For this purpose the vessel should be equipped with the following devices:

  1. Inclined darting-out wings improving stability of the vessel when moving.
  2. Streamlined exterior ballast keel for improving the stability of the vessel.
  3. The device equipped with a pendulum mechanism for automatic management of the list.
  4. Wings under the hull of the vessel not protruding behind its dimensions purposed for eliminating of the drift and list when moving.
  5. Pendulum load equipped with shifting centre of gravity for complete elimination of the list.
  6. Rope, hydraulic and diaphragm-vacuum regulator of the list.
  7. Propeller with a free pitch whose blades without any outer driving fix themselves at the optimum angle when running headway and backward and when standing idle - blades fixing themselves parallel to the driving shaft and not increasing the vessel running resistance.
  8. 8. Simple, reliable and fast-acting breaking device enabling to change the course of the vessel sharply and to damp the speed at the distance equal to one hull length.

Usage of Hydrodynamic Devices in Energy Saving and Environmental Technologies of Vessels
B.V. Zavgorodniy, Director of Gidrotoplivo
The ever growing price of hydrocarbon fuels, resolutions on the environmental protection adopted by the international organizations and national governments require that the manufacturers of vessels' energy equipment and ship owners develop and apply technical innovations for increasing the efficiency of fuel combustion and reducing the emission of the combustion products into the environment.
The problem of reduction of emission of harmful impurities in exhaust gases became more important after the International Marine Organization (IMO) adopted in 1997 Supplement VI to MARPOL 73/78 according to which the emission of the harmful substances in exhaust gases should be sharply reduced after 2000.
At the present time technologies enabling to affect the physico-chemical properties of fuels are developed and applied more and more efficiently. For this purpose the additives are introduced into the fuel that intensify the process of combustion and reduce the emission of harmful substances into the environment. The engines are converted onto the water-fuel emulsion (WFE), before feeding into the engine the fuel is homogenized, treated by the high frequency ultrasonic fluctuations accompanied by cavitation phenomena. The results of the said developments were most effectively applied on vessels in the middle of the 80-s. For instance, in 1985 Mortransflot developed and put into practice on trawler Proliv Nadezhdy device UKDG-85 for preparation of homogenized water-fuel emulsion (WFE) that enabled to reduce the fuel consumption of the main engine by12%. The temperature of exhaust gases decreased by 8-10%, the ecological parameters of exhaust gases were improved and on the whole the main details of diesel engines were positively affected. In this way, application of complicated and expensive designing and technological improvements was avoided but the economy of the engine, in fact, was brought to the level of the parameters of engines of the new generation and at the same time the heat density of parts of the cylinder-piston complex was reduced.
UKDG-85 and its improved variant UKDG-89 are equipped with the set of hydro-dynamic devices in which in consecutive order the liquids being mixed are dispersed in a multi-stage manner and homogenized on the level of high frequency ultrasonic fluctuations being accompanied by intensive cavitation phenomena.
The equipment was installed on 50 vessels of the sea fishing fleet.
At the present time there is, in fact, no further potential for reduction of the emission of harmful substances in exhaust gases by means of improvement of the parameters of the operation process of diesel engines. The cardinal purification of gases from NOx by 90% with the help of catalyst generators fixed in the exhaust pipeline of the engine is mainly applied on newly built vessels and the extra costs per one vessel with the engine power of 10 000 kW amount to USD 400 000-700 000.
There are numerous examples of a wide application of the water-fuel emulsion on the foreign vessels both for the purpose of reduction of emission of harmful substances in exhaust gases and for improvement of the efficiency of fuel consumption.
In the result of carried-out experiments and acquired experience of usage of the homogenized water-fuel emulsion in fuel systems of energy complexes it was established that the technical-economic effect depends not only on the degree of dispersiveness and water content in WFE but also on the degree of the impact performed on the physico-chemical structure of the fuel and the way the emulsion is used in fuel systems of diesel engines and steam boilers.
The set of hydro-dynamic devices for the multi-stage preparation of water-fuel emulsion and cavitation-ultrasonic treatment of fuel comprises of:

  • - cavitation mixer installed in the sucking-in part of the pump and being the first stage of the fuel treatment and water-fuel emulsion preparation;
  • - homogenizing-vortical mixer installed in the supplying part of the pump and being the second stage of water-fuel emulsion preparation and cavitation-ultrasonic treatment of fuel.

Water is supplied from the water system of the vessel into the cavitation mixer where is it dispersed to the dimensions of 1-20 mcm. Water-fuel emulsion prepared beforehand is pumped into the homogenizing-vortical mixer in which the water part of the emulsion is dispersed to the dimensions of 1-5 mcm and fuel is homogenized by means of cavitation-ultrasonic treatment.

  1. The application of water-fuel emulsion allows to considerably improve the utilization of hydrocarbon fuels and to reduce the emission of harmful substances into the environment.
  2. The economic effect of application of WFE prepared within the unbroken circle and directly supplied to the high pressure fuel pumps of the diesel engine is increasing. Such a scheme of WFE preparation provides the even distribution of the water part in the fuel medium, simplifies the task of maintenance of the optimum water content in WFE. WFE does not return from the engine to the consumption tanks.
  3. Conversion of the diesel operation onto WFE reduces caking, improves reliability of the performance of cylinder-piston group, gas-exhausting channel, fuel system, also the period between regular cleanings of fuel filters is extended.
  4. By lowering the temperature of exhaust gases the calorific intensity of the parts of cylinder-piston group and the speed of contamination of lubricating oil are reduced.
  5. The speed of wearing of the main details and parts of the diesel engines when running on WFE does not increase.
  6. The hydro-dynamic ultrasonic homogenizers can be fixed in the fuel supplying system from the settling fuel tank to the separator. Treatment of the fuel with ultrasonic fluctuations enables to reduce the content of combustible substances in the discharged slag by 80%.
  7. The level of automation of the technological process for preparation of homogenized WFE should be in compliance with the class of automation of the energy complex.

Extension of Inter-Repair Period and Reduction of Labour-Intensiveness of Ship Repairing
A.V. Chaliy, KSTU
Commissioning of new vessels should be accompanied by technical documentation on operation and repair, purpose of which is to enable the utter utilization of their technical potential. It results from extension of the inter-repair period and reduction of labour-intensiveness and duration of repair works.
For the purpose of extension of the inter-repair period of the fishing vessels being operated it is necessary to apply the received results of researches and new developments, among them: use of new types of ship building steel having enhanced corrosion resistance, strength and other positive parameters (to extend the service time), protection of under-water part of the vessel's hull from corrosion and fouling by means of self-regulating anti-fouling coatings (for cleaning docking not to be carried out frequently), utilization of the methods and means for technical diagnosing of the hull, engines, electrical engines, mechanisms, devices and pipelines (carrying-out of technical maintenance and repairs when needed), installation on the vessel of the ship machinery having higher level of reliability, longevity and repairability.
The example of the above is exploitation of vessels based on the dynamic system of the technical maintenance and repair including complex utilization of methods and means of diagnosing of the technical condition of a vessel and its technical equipment which has been developed in the Kaliningrad State Technical University.
The dynamic system does not exclude a current ship repair performed during the stay of a vessel in the port. The new scheme of 4-year exploitation repair period (the inter-repair period for a big freezing fishing trawler and ordinary freezing fishing vessel determined by means of studies of defects of steering gear) for the steering gear excludes medium repairs during the technical maintenance when the vessel is in the dock. The same applies to the protected under-water part of the vessel's hull, shaft and propeller complex and lower outboard armature.
In this way making use of all the innovations it is possible to convert fishing vessels onto the extended inter-repair exploitation period. That will prolong the exploitation time, reduce technical maintenance and repair expenses and make production capacities and ship lifting means available for the repair of those vessels that really need it.

Fixing of Norms of Technical Condition for Ship's Technical Means
Yu.P. Korolevskiy, KSTU
The norms of maximum wears of parts and clearances in joints allowable in exploitation are meant to prevent the intensity of wearing from getting progressive and parameters of the operation process from getting worse. The said norms are obtained on the basis of complicated experiments in laboratories and test stands of manufacturing enterprises. Due to this reason the latter usually provide consumers with norms in respect of limited assortment of products which, as a rule, contain certain safety margin to avoid claims. Such a practice results in under-utilization of the workable reserve of the parts, their premature repair and replacement.
The analysis showed that there have not been reliable dependencies between the quantities of maximum technical condition and geometrical dimensions of parts, conditions and parameters of the operation process. The experience of Institute Gyprorybflot, S.-Petersburg, proves that such dependencies can be worked out. The methodical principles of the parts of ship's diesel engines that have been approved by the Register's head office during several decades have been proving in practice their unification, efficiency and possibility to solve the problem by means of a purposeful research.
The next important for practical use norms are those of post-repair wears of parts and clearances in the units that should guarantee a reliable work of a received repaired mechanism during the planned inter-repair period.
The problem of optimization of the fixing of norms of technical condition of ship's technical means is of ever importance primarily for the organizations engaged in fleet operation since they are the consumers of the methodical developments ensuring the safe seafaring and the economic effect.

Vibration-Dynamic Method of Under-Water Cleaning of Ships' Hulls
M. Kasperuk, V.P. Yakovlev, KSTU
Under-water removal of fouling can be performed in the following ways:

  • - by mechanical method - with the use of brushes, scrapers, vibrating knifes;
  • - by hydro-dynamic method - with the use of water jets being under pressure and cavitation phenomena;
  • - with the help of a blast wave when exploding detonating cords or performing under-water electrical discharges.

The said methods of under-water cleaning are not perfect and have numerous drawbacks.
The new method is being developed with the purpose of improving the preventive under-water cleaning and also with the purpose of making preliminary pre-docking cleaning of hulls from the fouling products possible.
It is deemed that the ideal working element of the said method is the surrounding water that serves as a constantly reproducing cleaning instrument. Water under great pressure (30-50 mPa) is used for under-water cleaning. Experiments showed that the jet method could not destroy shells of fouling organisms but removed seaweed, bivalves and also the slime. Evidently, the reason of this phenomenon is that when the water jet flows under water its energy is spent for creation of whirls that flow the firm and hard shells round. This leads to the conclusion that it is expedient to include into the jet going out of the nozzle hard metallic elements to transfer the energy of the jet to the shells to be destroyed. The number of movements of plates should exceed the value of impulse sufficient for destruction of the shell. The front edge of the instrument which is supposed to bit the shell with the purpose of shifting or removing it should be made not cutting with a sharp edge but mortising. When the workload is cyclical the instrument performs as a vibrating device. That allows to develop much higher effort than it could be if the workload is static.
Proceeding from the above the instrument to be developed should represent a rigid construction of plates that affect the shell in the impulse way with the periodicity determined by the speed of the circle movement and number of plates.
The proposed method is able to solve the contradicting task of finding a reliable way of removing the fouling objects from the under-water part of the hull and preserving the existing varnishing and painting and at the same time of reducing the energy consumption and increasing the efficiency of the cleaning process.

Improvement of electrical-hydro-impulsive technology in shipbuilding and ship repairing
V.P. Yakovlev, KSTU
The electrical-hydro-impulsive (EHI) technology has occupied its place in the industry as one of the up-to-date technological processes. It allows to directly use the electrical energy for creation of hydro-dynamic disturbances for the purpose of treatment of materials. The EHI technology has begun to be applied in the shipbuilding and ship repairing just recently but it has already showed its advantage over the traditional treatment methods. The EHI technology is applied for beating-out of worn pipes and expanding of new ones in heat-exchanging devices of fishing vessels, for cleaning the inside walls of the pipes, for breaking ice around the vessels being docked, for broadening the sleeves to fit the repair size, for cleaning the jacket system of an internal-combustion engine. It also can be applied in such technological processes which need directed strong and dozed mechanical action, for instance, for extracting the defected propellers, for making passages in ice, for fighting ice accretion, for repairing the mechanisms, preventive removing fouling objects, etc.
The researches resulted in creation of a lamellar exploding conductor having not an inductive but capacity character of load. But its main advantage is that it provides in the pre-disruptive phase of the discharge high resistance that ensures that the energy is reflected into the line. After the disruption is performed the active resistance sharply goes down to the necessary value which is determined by the resistance of ionized particles in the channel having the prescribed value. As a result the electrical efficiency of the discharge increased up to 60%.

Analysis of Characteristics of Jacks of Different Makes
S. Sedoush, mechanical engineer, candidate of technical science, director of Gidrodon
The article tells about the comparative analysis of various hydraulic jacks based on several common parameters. The objects under the analysis were hydraulic jacks made of alloyed steel, having normal height, spring return of a piston to the initial position, capacity of 15-100 tons, stroke of 150-260 mm and working pressure of 630 bars. The makes under the consideration were Enerpac (USA), HidrUM (CIS), Hi-force (UK), Holmatro (Netherlands), Magnus (UK), Power Team (USA), Simplex (USA) and two Russian trading companies who have been trying lately to design jacks of their own — Agro Yur and Enerpred.
The parameters on the basis of which the analysis has been carried out were:

  • - price;
  • - weight;
  • - minimum height;
  • - stroke;
  • - availability of maintenance service;
  • - height-stroke ratio;
  • - own weight-load weight ratio;
  • - price of one kilo of a jack;
  • - price of lifting 1 t per 1 mm.

The analysis showed that according to the majority of considered parameters the leader is the HidrUM jack. The constructive design of the devices of this make is worked up by 3-43% better than of the others and the cost of production of HidrUM jacks is by 16-45% lower. As a result the consumer is provided with a lighter jack at an affordable price being cheap in operation and with the lowest price of lifting 1 ton per 1 mm. HidrUM jacks have the longest guarantee period and their seals are made of widely spread materials. Apart from that only HidrUM guarantees replacement of their equipment in case of its malfunction within 15 months from the day of sale.

Study of Actual Accuracy of Working Lines of Assembly-Welding Jigs and Potential of Improving It
A.P. Ivanov, KSTU
The accuracy of observance of assembly parameters is one of the most important characteristics of the quality of technological processes. This fully applies to complicated, labour consuming processes of assembling panels of ship's hull. The study into the mechanism of accumulation of errors of panel assembly with due regard for various construction-technological factors not only proved the prevailing influence of the accuracy of the working lines of assembly-welding armature on the resulting accuracy of the forms of the basic panel sheets but also allowed to find out the main reasons of the low accuracy of the armature lines and the ways of improving it.
The objects of the investigation were widely spread in shipbuilding and ship repairing special jigs made of sets of demountable templates fixed on the self-dependent bases.
The main calculation parameters of the errors to be studied were coordinates of the middle and lower and upper limits of the template. The analyses of accuracy of the working surface of the jigs were performed separately for its flat and curving (with small and big curvature) parts and also separately for newly manufactured armature and used armature delivered after a long storage.
The analysis showed that the low accuracy of the working lines results from the imperfection of the constructive design of the armature, of the technology of manufacturing it and peculiarities of exploitation of the jigs. The main contribution into the accumulative error of the jig lines is brought by the errors occurring in marking-off and turning of the working edges of the templates and also by considerable errors accompanying sitting of the latter according to the marks on the control level.
Winding up the analysis of the actual accuracy of the working lines of the jigs under the study and reasons of its low accuracy it is possible to draw a conclusion that introduction of any certain technical and technological measures will not be of any considerable effect and will not allow to bring the errors of jig lines within the limits of permissible fluctuations. Due to this the attempt has been taken to develop a new construction of armature and a brand new technology of manufacturing it which could ensure a considerable reduction of errors caused by the manufacturing process and exploitation. It is reached by means of applying a new constructive scheme of setting and fixing the templates of a jig on its base. The working element of such armature is a demountable template made by means of plasma cutting machines with a programmed control ensuring +5 mm accuracy of cutting.

Improvement of Methods and Means of Cleaning Grease- and Mazut-Soiled Ship's Tanks
V.P. Yakovlev, S.M. Kasperuk, KSTU
The analysis of the existing methods of cleaning mazut-soiled tanks showed that their efficiency leaves much to be desired and the study in respect of methods and means of grease soiled tanks proved that they are not only inefficient but also wrong.
The main problem in respect of cleaning grease-soiled tanks is that none of the existing methods can remove a dense film 2-3 mm thick into which a friable thick layer of grease turns. The existing hydro monitors are only able to cut and beat this film off here and there, consequently for the purpose of its complete removal new constructive and technological solutions are needed. Till now complete removal and reduction of this thick film to small fragments have not been obtained and the cleaning is finalized manually with the help of scrapers.
Mazut-soiled water for fishing vessels is mainly kept in the tanks located between bottoms, it is characterized by a high density and when it is cold outside it clogs hoses and cargo pumps up. In regard of this it is expedient to emulsify it to decrease the density and to heat up in a cold period. Application of special emulsifying agents including ultra-sonic ones showed that they are not more efficient than emulsifying by means of bubbling.
The innovations proposed by the authors in respect of the technology of cleaning grease-soiled tanks are based on the analysis of the physical parameters of the fish oil. Due to the property of the fish oil to get polymerized and turn into a thick film when affected by a high temperature there is no point in washing it off with the help of hot water or treat the grease-soiled tanks with hot steam. The most difficult task is removal of foamed into clots layer of the fish oil staying on the surface that is done manually.
The authors developed a device floating on the surface of the greased water, emulsifying clots of the fish oil and sucking them out through a ratchet. Simultaneously, the hydro monitor being fixed on the same float washes the bulkhead surfaces with horizontal jets. It is expedient to use warm water having temperature of 25-350C and instead of various cleaning liquids being problematic to discharge to use the salt solution which can be discharged according to the environmental norms and which has proved efficient when applied in cleaning the grease-soiled tanks of tanker Lokbatan.

Improvement of Efficiency of Cutting Ships for Scrap on Kaliningrad Enterprises
A.P. Ivanov, S.V. Diatchenko, O.V. Zharikova, KSTU
Utilization of worn out ships of various types and purposes is an important and rather difficult issue. The reason is that on the one hand there is a big number of various constructive designs of the cutting objects and on the other hand there is no substantially grounded system of solving this problem.
After studying and formalizing the cutting processes 12 typical technological operations have been determined. Among the necessary and sufficient indices of the efficiency of various ship cutting technologies there are cost, labour consumption and duration of cutting work, technological means being used and organization of the works. The task of choosing the rational technological scheme of ship cutting has two stages of solving. The first stage includes selection from the number of all possible technological ship cutting schemes of those which can be applied for a concrete ship and in concrete conditions of a certain enterprise with due regard to restrictions. The second stage comprises of a comparative technical-economic analysis of the selected options of technological schemes and determination of the most efficient.
As a result of carried-out studies it has been detected that subject to the conditions of a basic enterprise the most efficient option of technological scheme of typical ship cutting is a technology providing for scraping of a floating hull by means of a sectional gas cutting followed by working up of a bottom part with the help of elongated cumulative discharges.

Rules of Classifying, Designing, Construction and Equipping of Small Fishing Vessels
V.S. Krasyuk, KSTU
The order of Goskomrybolovstvo of RF # 15 of 15.06.1999 approves the Rules of classifying, designing, construction and equipping of small vessels of the fishing fleet (the Rules) developed by institute Giprorybflot jointly with the Shipbuilding Department of the Kaliningrad State Technical University.
The Rules provide for the introduction of the State supervision over small vessels of the Russian fishing fleet. The duties of the State supervision authority include consideration and approving of the technical documentation on construction, modernization and re-equipping of vessels and also periodical survey and issuing of documents verifying safety of a ship.
The structure and organization of activity of the State supervision authority will be to the major part analogous to those of the Sea and River Registers but the practical application of the norms and requirements will be more flexible.
For instance, the supervision authority is entitled to partially or completely exempt the vessel from fulfillment of certain regulations and requirements of the Rules in case their application is deemed to be inexpedient or impossible under certain conditions and concrete circumstances. In this case the vessel is provided with a special certificate verifying exemption from the Rules.
In the major part of the states and international organizations (IMO) a size on the basis if which a ship is deemed to be small-sized applies to the maximum length of 24 m (80 feet). Within this range it is allowed for ships to have such differences in other important classifying parameters that to great extent the ship length is deprived of its determining role in the classification of ships.
Rating of self-propelling ships as small-sized on the basis of the engine capacity without due regard to the size limitations can lead to emergency of self-propelling ships with the low engine capacity that can rather be called low-capacity than small-sized vessels while not self-propelling vessels regulated by the gross tonnage parameter with good reason can be deemed as low-tonnage ones.
The approach and principles of setting norms for parameters of small-sized vessels are mainly influenced by the nature and ecological, fishery and economic conditions of the country and its regions.
Rating of ships as small-sized on the basis of certain classification indices in its turn performs a determining influence on their architecture and technical characteristics and parameters to be normalized as when building ships the ship owners naturally wish to bring the measures of norms down especially if these norms decrease the economic efficiency of the vessel.
The example can be the evolution of the Scottish coastal fishing fleet after in 1975 the Rules for securing safety of fishing ships were introduced. The Rules provided for extension and toughening of requirements applied to the ships depending on their length: under 10,0 m, under 12,0 m, under 16,5 m, under 24,4 m and more than 24,4 m. The ships of under 12,0 m are exempt from the requirements on stability and freeboard and are subject only to safety means and fire-fighting equipment requirements. As a result by 1989 the typical Scottish vessels turned out to be of 9,95 m, 11,99 m, 16,25 m and 24,39 m.

By Coasts of Maghrib
Rudolf Bouroukovskiy
The author was onboard of the Russian exploratory ship that performed the salvage operation by the coasts of the Maghrib — it is an ancient name of the today's Morocco. The task of the vessel was to explore the distribution of fish resources and to determine the number level of commercial fish and sea life. The method applied was a trawl survey on various depths — from minimum approachable to 900 m. The points of trawling were located on the imaginary lines perpendicular to the coast line. These imaginary lines would cut the whole water area of Morocco into segments. Each segment needed 10-12 trawlings on minimum and maximum reachable depths. While doing this work the crew had a chance to see all the details of the Maghrib coast. On its slopes there were hamlets, with houses and mosques scattered all over. From time to time there appeared strict grey rectangulars — remnants of the Portuguese forts. Two thousand years ago this land witnessed conquers of Phoenicians and Romans.
On one day the crewmembers noticed a small fishing boat having fire onboard. The vessel headed for the salvage operation. It was seen that the burning part was a deck superstructure. The fishermen were busy with some strange things: one man threw over the board some cistern tied up on one end, the other man did the same with the door. Then the boat began sinking. The fishermen jumped into the water trying to reach the wooden things thrown there before. It became clear — they did not have fire. They were sinking and set fire to their boat intentionally so that to attract attention.
The history of this shipwreck is simple. It is typical for the Moroccan fishermen. It is characteristic for their wooden boats that the base of the engine is fixed directly on the wooden bottom by through bolts. Of course they get corroded. And it is natural that the day comes when a bigger or smaller piece of bottom falls off. The rest is clear. Needs to be added that the crew of six members did not have any life jacket.
When the boat began sinking the fishermen hastened making the floating appliances from the available things. Suddenly they noticed another fishing boat within the visibility limit. They signaled with the only rocket they had — of course, there was no radio at their disposal. It seemed that the boat slowed down. Then the master and the engineer — the only two more or less literate people on the boat — decided to float to the other boat. They launched a floating appliance of some kind and rowed. But then the storm came and the two were carried by waves.
At this moment the Russian vessel appeared. One of the Moroccans suggested to use their whole boat as a signal and to set fire to the deck superstructure. They were saved.
Later the cable was received saying that the Spanish fishing vessel picked up the master and the engineer — one of them being dead.
Having experienced the salvation the Russian ship headed further to the south along the Atlantic facade of the native land of Arabic fairy-tales.

AEF — Origin of Elements
P.A. Chagin, President of the Association of Sea Captains of the Kaliningrad region
The author was not only the witness but also one of the participants of formation of the fishery industry in the Kaliningrad region. He tells about the details of this process.
Koenigsberg was seized by the Soviet troops in April of 1945 and on the 12th of June already the Baltic State Fishing Trust was established after the resolution of the State Committee of Defense # 9052 and the order of the People's Committee of Fish Industry of the USSR # 205 dated June 14. Its main task was organization and development of the fishing industry on the territory of the newly established Koenigsberg region (as from the 4th of June 1946 — the Kaliningrad region). The trust received trawlers, fishing boats and other survived trophies. On the basis of these the coastal fishing in the bays and in the area of Noikouren (today — Pionerskiy) began. In the very beginning the local Germans who knew the fishing grounds and were well experienced were engaged in the works. But by passage of time new Koenigsberg citizens would learn local waters, fishing species and habitats.
In 1948 Baltgosrybtrest (the Baltic State Fish Trust) organized the first herring expedition to the North Sea. A group of vessels comprising of three sail-motor schooners headed for Iceland. This trip brought a relative success and herring to Kaliningrad.
Formation of AEF (the Administration of Expedition Fishery) was promoted by the experience obtained in this first expedition. So that to expand the fishery AEF was established on the 8th of October 1949 after the order of Baltgosrybtrest and was given a fleet consisting of 14 seiners and 14 medium catching trawlers.
Through years of successful work AEF developed into one of the biggest fishing organizations of the Kaliningrad region which provided up to 50% of the municipal budget. By the end of 1959 AEF had 165 medium catching trawlers, 15 floating fish-factories, its own tankers and salvage tugs. Its fleet was the first to develop the area of Big Newfoundland Bank and Georgia Bank, it began catching sardines in the area near Green Cape. The participant of the last mentioned expedition was the first ship with the capacity of 5000-7000 hp - the Kazan and three medium trawlers. Expansion of the fishery areas, increase in the number of vessels demanded a proper reorganization of the management system. AEF in fact became an ancestor of many fishing enterprises. When there appeared large-capacity vessels up to 5000-7000 hp they organized the administration of the refrigerating fleet called "Zaprybkholodflot". And in 1963 AEF was reorganized into "The Kaliningrad Base of the Oceanic Fishing Fleet".
Thus in the course of only two decades the fishing industry of the Kaliningrad region was formed thanks to the efforts of its pioneers. In 1970-80 the industry was in its flourishing. The Kaliningrad fishermen worked in almost all regions of the world ocean.

Translated by Galina Kopytova



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