The Fishing Kaliningrad
One could not fail noticing that for many years there have not been ships
waiting for unloading by the moorings of the Kaliningrad port. Better
say the ships arrive but very rarely and it seems that the moorings remain
idle. One decade was enough to ruin the balance of the established infrastructure
of the port of Kaliningrad. The city has exhausted its industrial resource
that obtained during the Soviet period. Not having further development
and, more than that, any development potential, the ports, fleets, fishing
and transport complexes became unclaimed. The authorities have changed
their priorities of the economical development of the region for the sphere
of trading, rendering of services and humanitarian assistance. The industry
was gradually degrading. The wish to shift the problems onto the central
authorities and not to acknowledge their own impotence happened to be
the only maneuver of the regional administration. But the reproaches cast
upon the central power turned out to be ill-considered and irresolute
and the centre claimed that the Kaliningrad region is not able to use
the granted privileges, consequently, it does not deserve them and soon
will be deprived of them.
The collapse of the leading regional industry can be considered reality.
If there was a book devoted to the history of the fishing industry of
Kaliningrad the shortest but most weighty chapter could have been the
one about those who happened to be at the head of the industry in 1999
and which when put in a nut shell could say "They buried that what
intelligent and devoted to their cause and the people ones have been creating
for many years".
Nobody was bold enough to oppose the sharp changes which are harmful for
such a huge and specific industry. The policy of self-determination of
the fishing enterprises failed as far back as in the beginning of the
90-s. Having realized it then nobody tried to stop the chaos, to create
the modern strategy of industry development and to rule it into the more
The fishing and transport fleets only 10 years ago were the main power
of the Kaliningrad region. They were managed strictly under the state
control and this was justified not only by the economical system of the
country but also by the principles of the strategic construction, development
and management of the industry. The state was the owner of the fleet and
nobody disputed this ownership.
Mutual guarantee of the enterprise leaders and governmental officials
lay in the basis of the fleet privatization. On average in the privatization
period the price which the new owners paid for a vessel was about USD
20 000. The net unaccountable profit from the resale of one vessel would
amount to minimum USD 50 000.
As for Kaliningrad - one could buy such vessels from AO Zapryba, AO Rybprognoz,
AO Kaliningradrybprom, AO MariNPO. These are companies that received the
main part of the fleet after it had been privatized. The first to get
rid of their vessels were Kaliningradrybprom and MariNPO. Rybprognoz changed
its owners and its name for Atlantrybflot and all these years has been
trying to find its way and a foot-hold in the business. The enterprise
lost a considerable portion of its fleet. But the most interesting is
happening to the leader of the regional fishing industry - AO Zapryba.
According to the expert evaluation its main problem is people, e.g. management,
who have not the least wish for the enterprise to develop successfully.
And the most frightening thing is that they have no idea of how to run
the enterprise. Also what matters is that the shareholders of Zapryba
are not interested in survival of the company.
It is worth mentioning two most progressive fishing companies: Westrybflot
and For. They managed to build successful business, today their work is
profitable and their fleets are even expanding.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management — the way for cooperation
Sergey Shibaev, Konstantin Tylik, David Johnson
The intensive exploitation of the marine resources during the recent decades
has resulted in the situation when fish catching turned out to be just
one of many coastal activities among which there are extraction of oil,
gas, other minerals, shipping, construction of hydro power engineering
objects, ports, dikes, enterprises which discharge their wastes into the
sea water. The interaction between the various sea resources users causes
conflicts by creating spatial hindrances and competition and polluting
the environment and resulting in degradation of the ecological systems
on the whole. Due to this the knowledge of hydrobionts biology only is
not sufficient for their effective protection and rational usage. There
should be a complex approach which in respect of water ecological systems
has been put into practice in various countries in the form of programs
of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).
ICZM is a method of searching for solutions for protection of a unique
system comprised of on-land objects (beaches, dunes, marshes), the coast
itself and estuaries and also the water area being in this or that way
connected with the coast (exclusive economic zone - EEZ) on the basis
of harmonization of all the various types of nature exploitation. It is
evident that realization of such an approach requires specialists with
Education institutes of Great Britain have been training specialists on
coastal zones for a long time by now and the Marine Faculty of the Southampton
Institute suggested to apply their experience for the purpose of improvement
of training of specialists on water biological resources and aquaculture
of the Faculty of Biological Resources and Nature Exploitation of the
Kaliningrad State Technical University.
The project presupposed studying of the system of the ecological education
in the UK, in particular, in the sphere of the ecological management;
acquaintance with the environment protection practice on the national,
regional and local levels and also with the activity of the environment
protection institutes. Apart from that it was planned to develop the training
programs on the coastal zones management with the purpose of inclusion
of them in the curricula of the KSTU.
The implementation of the project resulted in improvement of the training
programs for ichthyologists on account of inclusion in the curricula of
new topics and sections relating to exploration of the marine resources
(not only biological ones), methods of analyzing and solving conflicts
between the nature users in the coastal zones. Participation in the project
provided the Russian side with the access to a big scope of foreign literature
on the above issues which, in fact, does not exist in Russia. At present
new training aids are being developed in the KSTU. Also the participants
of the project gave lectures on the matters of the coastal zones ecology
and methods of zones protection in two countries to the students of both
Fund "Know How" of the British Council for the Regional Academic
Partnership which supports such projects estimated the Southampton-Kaliningrad
one as of the best among the total of 95 analogous projects.
The KSTU and the Southampton Institute decided to continue their fruitful
cooperation. There are plans to start in the nearest future a joint project
which would involve more partners from different countries, mainly of
the Baltic region, having the experience in exploration of the coastal
zones ecology and in the management of the zones.
From 21 till 25 of June 2000 in the exhibition center Lenexpo in S.-Petersburg
there was held VII international specialized exhibition Inrybprom-2000
dedicated to the modern methods of reproduction and utilization of aqua
biological resources. The exhibition was organized by the State Fishery
Committee of Russian Federation, VAO Lenexpo and AO Expocenter.
More than 450 Russian and foreign companies from 25 countries displayed
their products and developments. Among them there were the biggest Russian
fishery and shipbuilding enterprises, scientific-research organizations.
The opening ceremony was attended by the Governor of S.-Petersburg Vladimir
Yakovlev, Chairman of Goskomrybolovstvo Y. Sinelnik and other officials.
They noted that the exhibition is to show the modern level of national
and international achievements of the fishery science and practice and
to become a link with the future of the Russian fishery and aquaculture.
At the press-conference for the mass-media telling about the exhibition
Y.P. Sinelnik briefed on a number of the important provisions of the Russian
fishery policy which, to his mind, should be brought into the practice
in the coming years. According to him the deep-water fishery is beneficial
for any country. It means jobs, needed protein products and money resources.
There are plans for the return of the Russian fleet to a number of regions
of the World Ocean. At the present time when the stocks of our main commercial
fish species - pollock and cod - are decreasing they forecast 10% increase
of the total Russian seafood catching in 2000 on account of growing of
the deep-water fishery. To stimulate this process they provide for measures
of the state support for the domestic companies for the whole pay-back
period (from 7 to 12 years) so that to build the fishing fleet in Russia.
Another important issue is the fight against the illegal catching and
export of seafood that, according to the expert estimations, causes damages
to the country amounting to USD 700 mln. In this respect such measures
as the satellite monitoring of vessels' movements, obligatory trans-shipment
of valuable fish only in the Russian ports and others are of major importance.
Within the framework of the exhibition there was scientific-technical
symposium "Modern means of reproduction and utilization of aqua biological
resources" whose four sections were "Raw materials resources
and fishery", "Fishing fleet", "Processing, packing,
transportation, storage and sales of fish products and seafood" and
"Aquaculture of XXI. Acclimatization and reproduction of fish stocks".
Outbreak of Сommon Triggerfish Population off Atlantic African Сoast
in the 60-s.
In the end of the 60-s off the Atlantic African coast there happened a
sudden dramatic increase in the population of common triggerfish which
in certain areas became a dominating species of the ichthyocene. It caused
concern in the countries of the Atlantic coast as their coastal waters
had been filled with an organism which was considered not eatable and
which appeared in the region in unprecedented quantities. To their mind
it meant danger of extinction for the local valuable commercial fish species.
The alarming signals were sent from Togo, Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sierra-Leone,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau. One of the reasons for such a phenomenon was considered
a displacement of the ecological balance of the waters of the Western
African coast which had resulted from the dramatic industrial and everyday
Before the increase of the population and massive wide spreading near
the Atlantic African coast common triggerfish had not been given much
attention. The article gives the main details on the biology of this insufficiently
explored species based on the author's own data and other sources. The
main supply of the information were expeditions of AtlantNIRO carried
out from 1969 till 1987.
Common triggerfish distributes in the Eastern Atlantic from Great Britain
to Angola, in the Western Atlantic - from New Scotland to Argentina, it
is also found on the continental shelf and by the islands. There are cases
when the fish was caught in the ocean deep waters.
Before the outbreak of its population common triggerfish was considered
as a bottom fish. It inhabits the coastal area, areas with sandy bottom,
outlets of rocks, stony and coral ridges.
The data obtained after the population outbreak contained a lot of new
and unknown about the biology of this fish, especially its bio-social
relationships. It turned out that common triggerfish can be considered
as a typical representative of mass shoal nerito-pelagic fish doing migrations
of two types: seasonal along the coast and daily vertical.
Studying proved that common triggerfish lives by temperature 17-28oC and
salinity above 33%. The fish avoids salty and desalinated waters and in
periods when the cold water intensively raises to the shelf and waters
get very desalinated common triggerfish migrates along the coastal line
and in the open sea. As for the vertical distribution there are two bio-masses
distinguished - inhabiting pelagia and bottom.
The yearly distribution of common triggerfish gatherings along the African
coast considerably depends on the seasonal changes of water temperature.
The highest concentration in certain areas is found in the beginning of
the warm season and during cold seasons the population decreases up to
the complete disappearance. Senegal enjoys the highest level of bio-mass
in August-September, Ghana and Ivory Coast - in November-January. Waters
of Togo, Sierra-Leone, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau also witness seasonal
migrations of common triggerfish gatherings.
As from the time of development of the intensive catching off the Western
Africa in the 60-s till the beginning of the 70-s the population of common
triggerfish was so low that it was not in any way interesting as a fishery
object, even potential. After the population outbreak the bio-mass of
this species reached the level of the most massive commercial fish of
the area such as jack mackerel and sardinella. The common triggerfish
fishery began. The technological studies showed that common triggerfish
can be used for manufacturing of various food products of high taste standards.
The suspicion about this fish being poisonous is groundless. The skinless
fillet of common triggerfish has got a good commodity appearance. In the
muscles there is a complex of ferments which are conducive to the storage
of fish at the initial processing stage and in the frozen state.
But in spite of big stocks the fishery has not become large-scale. The
main reason was technical difficulties connected with processing of triggerfish
due to its hard outer covering (strong skin tightly covered with scales)
and thorny fins.
The reason for the outbreak of triggerfish population off the Western
African coast can be explained in the following way. The 70-s were the
beginning of a new period of "zonal circulation" in the atmospheric
processes. It resulted in a drought that decreased river flow in Western
Africa. This decrease in the river flow resulted in extension of a reproduction
part of triggerfish natural habitat. The competition between separate
reproduction pairs became less. Also the decrease of the content of solids
in the water has a positive effect on the productivity of spawning. All
these beneficial factors resulted in a dramatic expansion of the species.
This increase of the triggerfish population influenced the structure of
fish stocks in certain regions where it began to occupy the dominating
position. There even happened a reduction of the traditional commercial
fish stocks, such as sardinella, and the level of catches of these species
was affected. In the following years one could witness the population
decreasing, especially after 1975 when precipitation level began to increase.
Today triggerfish again is a scarce species of no industrial importance
as it used to be before the 60-s.
Up-to-date Equipment and Devices of Sea Electronics
Y.V. Orlov, Chief Designer of Marine Electronics Dept. of Experimental
Designing Bureau of JSC MariNPO
The designers of the marine electronics department of the experimental
designing bureau of the marine scientific industrial fishing enterprise
(MariNPO) are developing the following up-to-date equipment and devices
for the trawl catching being at the present time almost the only method
of the industrial catching:
- - equipment for the instrument panel attestation of the trawl systems;
- - devices for industrial catching (trawl probes and devices controlling
- - devices used for searching and exploration, including underwater
The main purpose of creating this equipment is to increase
the efficiency of catching, e.g. to gain the best result by the most economic
means. The main task proceeding from this purpose is to provide the highest
result within the time unit and it can not be solved by the special vessels
without the special equipment.
The up-to-date equipment can provide an increase in the efficiency of
trawl catching tackle on account of improving the tactics and technique
of the catching process by means of reducing the energy consumption and
non-production time losses during the process of casting and retrieving
of the trawl, improving the aiming of the trawl in the vertical plane
and also reducing escape of fish from the trawl during the retrieving
The following tasks will be solved during the process of development of
- Creation of the system of instrument attestation of trawls and their
tackle enabling the objective comparison of the parameters and characteristics
of trawls, trawl beams and combination of warp-board-trawl with the
representation of the results on the colorful monitor and printer in
the form of tables and charts, carrying the note of the region and time
- Creation of the technological trawl system enabling the manual and
semi-automated regimes of the trawling stages.
- Development and manufacturing of separate complexes and systems comprising
the measuring trawling complex (MTK) which can be used on their own
during catching or for the exploration purposes.
- Reduction of parameters of weight and dimensions and energy consumption
from the autonomous energy sources and vessel's network on account of
application of the modern element base in the electronic schemes.
The measuring trawling complex (MTK) consists of the combination
of jointly operating technical devices and their parts placed on trawls,
beams and vessel's board. Each of them is purposed for the independent
performance of the specific tasks:
- The system of determination of the trawl parameters based on the
multi-parameter trawl probe.
- The system of control of warp parameters (length, effort, speed).
The basis of the system is the complex for determination of the length
of steel ropes.
- The system of control over spatial-temporal situation of the trawl
beams. The basis of this system is the beam equipment for the depth
and distance between the beams.
MTK complex is intended for control over the spatial-temporal situation
of the trawl and beams in relation to each other and also of the sea
surface and bottom during the process of casting-retrieving and trawling.
The complex (or its separate components) can be used both
in the industrial fishing when giving a work out to the catching tactics
and technique and during the comparative trials of trawls and their parts.
The principle of operation of the complex is as follows. The information
from the beams is transmitted to the trawl leadrope through the hydro-acoustic
line by means of radio impulses on the frequency of 75 kHz and from the
trawl to the vessel's board - through the cable of the vessel's winch
of the trawl probe. The depth of the trawl and each of the beams is determined
with the help of a linear semiconducting strain gauging sensor for hydrostatic
pressure of DD 2.5 type of D 16 type the upper limits of which are 2.5
and 16 mPa respectively. The information about availability of fish in
the trawl orifice and reflecting objects determining the vertical opening,
the distance to the bottom, etc. is received by means of echo sounding
based on the time during which the sounding impulse goes to the aim and
Shipbuilding in Germany
The 29th of December, 1999 was the day of an 115-anniversary of the shipbuilding
industry of Germany. On this date in 1884 the Union of German Shipyards
was established which by passage of time united almost all the biggest
shipyards of the country. In result of consolidation of the efforts in
the sphere of shipbuilding, especially in the field of development of
new shipbuilding technologies, in the end of the last century Germany
became the world leader in the said spheres and its technical experience
was widely used by many shipbuilding companies. The impulse for the rapid
development of shipbuilding and consolidation of the efforts of all the
German shipyards laid in the important political and, more important,
1882 was the year when in the major part of the European countries the
economic crises came and lasted till 1885. The demand for German steel
and steel products became considerably lower. The level of the sea cargo
transportation also reduced. World shipbuilding and shipping were in crisis.
All these affected the German shipbuilding which actually collapsed.
So that to improve the situation many industrial associations were founded.
For instance in 1872 they established the North German Shipbuilders Union
which in the beginning included shipyards of the Baltic Sea. Later this
organization transformed into the German Shipbuilders Union that mainly
was dealing with the social-political problems of the industry and, in
fact, became the ancestor of the shipbuilding companies of the today's
At the present time the leading role in the German shipbuilding belongs
to such firms as the German Ship Owners (Verband Deutscher Reeder - VDR),
the Shipbuilding and Marine Technics Union (Verband fur Schiffbau und
Meerestechnik - VSM) and, of course, the German Lloyd (Germanischer Lloyd).
Everything what happens in the German shipbuilding is connected with the
practical activity of these companies. Due to this their competent opinion
in respect of the main trends and results in the German shipbuilding on
the edge of the third millennium is of importance for many economists
and experts in the whole world.
As a result of the recommendations of the German Ship Owners Union the
German Government allocated subsidies and in 1998 the German trade fleet
was considerably renewed, especially its container carriers. 113 new vessels
with the total tonnage of 1.8 mln tons were put into operation. More over,
25 ships of various types were sold to the foreign ship owners. But expansion
of the fleet brought about another problem. At present only 10 000 people
are employed on the German trade vessels and this is insufficient. The
demand for qualified specialists still exceeds the supply.
The German Ship Owners Union comprises of 400 entrepreneurs and covers
the whole territory of Germany. It employs more than 70 000 people and
its capital amounts to DM 16 bln.
Out of the total number of vessels of various types built in Germany in
1998 foreign orders amounted for 62% and 44% of this portion were from
the EU countries while the volume of Asian orders reduced by 21%. According
to experts this proves that in the nearest future the centre of the world
shipbuilding will start to shift to Asia.
Another authority in the German shipbuilding is Germanischer Lloyd who
says that the financial year of 1998 was characteristic of a considerable
growth of the main parameters of shipping and shipbuilding and also some
consolidation of major representatives of the German shipbuilding industry.
In spite of the financial-economic crisis in Asia and worsening of the
global financial relations the volume of the financial operations of Germanischer
Lloyd that is involved in the matters of vessels classification has increased
by 3% and amounted to DM 277.9 mln against DM 270.5 mln in 1997.
Besides its classification activity Germanischer Lloyd in engaged in such
economic spheres as sea shipbuilding, multipurpose marine technics, various
researches and developments of new technologies. Every second container
carrier in the world is built with participation of Germanischer Lloyd.
25 of them are the most up-to-date vessels of this type which can carry
up to 20 TEU each. Apart from that Germanischer Lloyd owns 25% of all
newly built multi-purpose vessels and 20% of gas tankers.
Apart from the problems related to the practical shipbuilding an important
role in the activity of Germanischer Lloyd belongs to developments and
researches in the sphere of ensuring of seafaring safety. Availability
of positive tendencies in the statistics of sea accidents proves that
in this sphere as well Germanischer Lloyd has reached good results.
Sailing Ship of Tarasov
V.V. Tarasov, B.D. Tarasov, Atlantic company. Kiev
The fuel consumption of one freezing trawler 104 m long uses up to 25
tons per day. Based on today's prices the daily fuel expenses will constitute
USD 7000-8000. A distant voyage to Australia or America or to the far
away fishing grounds of, for example, Antarctic will cost more than USD
600 000. It is very difficult to make any profit on such business. From
the cheapest transport means the fleet has turned into the expensive and
Energy equipment of the new sailing ship (project of Atlantic company,
Odessa, Ukraine) per 1 ton of displacement is 50-60 times as much as of
old sailing ships. Irrespective of dimensions the ship can be managed
by one person. The modern sailing ship is able to reach the speed twice
as much as of old sailing ships and modern motor vessels and to save up
to 90% of fuel.
The objective of the invention is to create a sailing ship of the new
generation being free from the drawbacks of old sailing ships among which:
- - big draft;
- - big drift and list;
- - unsatisfactory stability and manoeuvrability;
- - low speed;
- - lack of full reliability of express stop of the vessel.
It became necessary to create a speedy and safe ship and
to make it free from list and drift, to increase its stability and maneuvrability,
to improve the safety of its operation not increasing the draft, to make
the vessel economic and environmentally friendly - on the basis of all
these for it to be able to exclude motor vessels from seas and oceans.
For this purpose the vessel should be equipped with the following devices:
- Inclined darting-out wings improving stability of the vessel when
- Streamlined exterior ballast keel for improving the stability of
- The device equipped with a pendulum mechanism for automatic management
of the list.
- Wings under the hull of the vessel not protruding behind its dimensions
purposed for eliminating of the drift and list when moving.
- Pendulum load equipped with shifting centre of gravity for complete
elimination of the list.
- Rope, hydraulic and diaphragm-vacuum regulator of the list.
- Propeller with a free pitch whose blades without any outer driving
fix themselves at the optimum angle when running headway and backward
and when standing idle - blades fixing themselves parallel to the driving
shaft and not increasing the vessel running resistance.
- 8. Simple, reliable and fast-acting breaking device enabling to change
the course of the vessel sharply and to damp the speed at the distance
equal to one hull length.
Usage of Hydrodynamic Devices in Energy Saving and Environmental Technologies
B.V. Zavgorodniy, Director of Gidrotoplivo
The ever growing price of hydrocarbon fuels, resolutions on the environmental
protection adopted by the international organizations and national governments
require that the manufacturers of vessels' energy equipment and ship owners
develop and apply technical innovations for increasing the efficiency
of fuel combustion and reducing the emission of the combustion products
into the environment.
The problem of reduction of emission of harmful impurities in exhaust
gases became more important after the International Marine Organization
(IMO) adopted in 1997 Supplement VI to MARPOL 73/78 according to which
the emission of the harmful substances in exhaust gases should be sharply
reduced after 2000.
At the present time technologies enabling to affect the physico-chemical
properties of fuels are developed and applied more and more efficiently.
For this purpose the additives are introduced into the fuel that intensify
the process of combustion and reduce the emission of harmful substances
into the environment. The engines are converted onto the water-fuel emulsion
(WFE), before feeding into the engine the fuel is homogenized, treated
by the high frequency ultrasonic fluctuations accompanied by cavitation
phenomena. The results of the said developments were most effectively
applied on vessels in the middle of the 80-s. For instance, in 1985 Mortransflot
developed and put into practice on trawler Proliv Nadezhdy device UKDG-85
for preparation of homogenized water-fuel emulsion (WFE) that enabled
to reduce the fuel consumption of the main engine by12%. The temperature
of exhaust gases decreased by 8-10%, the ecological parameters of exhaust
gases were improved and on the whole the main details of diesel engines
were positively affected. In this way, application of complicated and
expensive designing and technological improvements was avoided but the
economy of the engine, in fact, was brought to the level of the parameters
of engines of the new generation and at the same time the heat density
of parts of the cylinder-piston complex was reduced.
UKDG-85 and its improved variant UKDG-89 are equipped with the set of
hydro-dynamic devices in which in consecutive order the liquids being
mixed are dispersed in a multi-stage manner and homogenized on the level
of high frequency ultrasonic fluctuations being accompanied by intensive
The equipment was installed on 50 vessels of the sea fishing fleet.
At the present time there is, in fact, no further potential for reduction
of the emission of harmful substances in exhaust gases by means of improvement
of the parameters of the operation process of diesel engines. The cardinal
purification of gases from NOx by 90% with the help of catalyst generators
fixed in the exhaust pipeline of the engine is mainly applied on newly
built vessels and the extra costs per one vessel with the engine power
of 10 000 kW amount to USD 400 000-700 000.
There are numerous examples of a wide application of the water-fuel emulsion
on the foreign vessels both for the purpose of reduction of emission of
harmful substances in exhaust gases and for improvement of the efficiency
of fuel consumption.
In the result of carried-out experiments and acquired experience of usage
of the homogenized water-fuel emulsion in fuel systems of energy complexes
it was established that the technical-economic effect depends not only
on the degree of dispersiveness and water content in WFE but also on the
degree of the impact performed on the physico-chemical structure of the
fuel and the way the emulsion is used in fuel systems of diesel engines
and steam boilers.
The set of hydro-dynamic devices for the multi-stage preparation of water-fuel
emulsion and cavitation-ultrasonic treatment of fuel comprises of:
- - cavitation mixer installed in the sucking-in part of the pump and
being the first stage of the fuel treatment and water-fuel emulsion
- - homogenizing-vortical mixer installed in the supplying part of the
pump and being the second stage of water-fuel emulsion preparation and
cavitation-ultrasonic treatment of fuel.
Water is supplied from the water system of the vessel into the cavitation
mixer where is it dispersed to the dimensions of 1-20 mcm. Water-fuel
emulsion prepared beforehand is pumped into the homogenizing-vortical
mixer in which the water part of the emulsion is dispersed to the dimensions
of 1-5 mcm and fuel is homogenized by means of cavitation-ultrasonic treatment.
- The application of water-fuel emulsion allows to considerably improve
the utilization of hydrocarbon fuels and to reduce the emission of harmful
substances into the environment.
- The economic effect of application of WFE prepared within the unbroken
circle and directly supplied to the high pressure fuel pumps of the
diesel engine is increasing. Such a scheme of WFE preparation provides
the even distribution of the water part in the fuel medium, simplifies
the task of maintenance of the optimum water content in WFE. WFE does
not return from the engine to the consumption tanks.
- Conversion of the diesel operation onto WFE reduces caking, improves
reliability of the performance of cylinder-piston group, gas-exhausting
channel, fuel system, also the period between regular cleanings of fuel
filters is extended.
- By lowering the temperature of exhaust gases the calorific intensity
of the parts of cylinder-piston group and the speed of contamination
of lubricating oil are reduced.
- The speed of wearing of the main details and parts of the diesel
engines when running on WFE does not increase.
- The hydro-dynamic ultrasonic homogenizers can be fixed in the fuel
supplying system from the settling fuel tank to the separator. Treatment
of the fuel with ultrasonic fluctuations enables to reduce the content
of combustible substances in the discharged slag by 80%.
- The level of automation of the technological process for preparation
of homogenized WFE should be in compliance with the class of automation
of the energy complex.
Extension of Inter-Repair Period and Reduction of Labour-Intensiveness
of Ship Repairing
A.V. Chaliy, KSTU
Commissioning of new vessels should be accompanied by technical documentation
on operation and repair, purpose of which is to enable the utter utilization
of their technical potential. It results from extension of the inter-repair
period and reduction of labour-intensiveness and duration of repair works.
For the purpose of extension of the inter-repair period of the fishing
vessels being operated it is necessary to apply the received results of
researches and new developments, among them: use of new types of ship
building steel having enhanced corrosion resistance, strength and other
positive parameters (to extend the service time), protection of under-water
part of the vessel's hull from corrosion and fouling by means of self-regulating
anti-fouling coatings (for cleaning docking not to be carried out frequently),
utilization of the methods and means for technical diagnosing of the hull,
engines, electrical engines, mechanisms, devices and pipelines (carrying-out
of technical maintenance and repairs when needed), installation on the
vessel of the ship machinery having higher level of reliability, longevity
The example of the above is exploitation of vessels based on the dynamic
system of the technical maintenance and repair including complex utilization
of methods and means of diagnosing of the technical condition of a vessel
and its technical equipment which has been developed in the Kaliningrad
State Technical University.
The dynamic system does not exclude a current ship repair performed during
the stay of a vessel in the port. The new scheme of 4-year exploitation
repair period (the inter-repair period for a big freezing fishing trawler
and ordinary freezing fishing vessel determined by means of studies of
defects of steering gear) for the steering gear excludes medium repairs
during the technical maintenance when the vessel is in the dock. The same
applies to the protected under-water part of the vessel's hull, shaft
and propeller complex and lower outboard armature.
In this way making use of all the innovations it is possible to convert
fishing vessels onto the extended inter-repair exploitation period. That
will prolong the exploitation time, reduce technical maintenance and repair
expenses and make production capacities and ship lifting means available
for the repair of those vessels that really need it.
Fixing of Norms of Technical Condition for Ship's Technical Means
Yu.P. Korolevskiy, KSTU
The norms of maximum wears of parts and clearances in joints allowable
in exploitation are meant to prevent the intensity of wearing from getting
progressive and parameters of the operation process from getting worse.
The said norms are obtained on the basis of complicated experiments in
laboratories and test stands of manufacturing enterprises. Due to this
reason the latter usually provide consumers with norms in respect of limited
assortment of products which, as a rule, contain certain safety margin
to avoid claims. Such a practice results in under-utilization of the workable
reserve of the parts, their premature repair and replacement.
The analysis showed that there have not been reliable dependencies between
the quantities of maximum technical condition and geometrical dimensions
of parts, conditions and parameters of the operation process. The experience
of Institute Gyprorybflot, S.-Petersburg, proves that such dependencies
can be worked out. The methodical principles of the parts of ship's diesel
engines that have been approved by the Register's head office during several
decades have been proving in practice their unification, efficiency and
possibility to solve the problem by means of a purposeful research.
The next important for practical use norms are those of post-repair wears
of parts and clearances in the units that should guarantee a reliable
work of a received repaired mechanism during the planned inter-repair
The problem of optimization of the fixing of norms of technical condition
of ship's technical means is of ever importance primarily for the organizations
engaged in fleet operation since they are the consumers of the methodical
developments ensuring the safe seafaring and the economic effect.
Vibration-Dynamic Method of Under-Water Cleaning of Ships' Hulls
M. Kasperuk, V.P. Yakovlev, KSTU
Under-water removal of fouling can be performed in the following ways:
- - by mechanical method - with the use of brushes, scrapers, vibrating
- - by hydro-dynamic method - with the use of water jets being under
pressure and cavitation phenomena;
- - with the help of a blast wave when exploding detonating cords or
performing under-water electrical discharges.
The said methods of under-water cleaning are not perfect and have numerous
The new method is being developed with the purpose of improving the preventive
under-water cleaning and also with the purpose of making preliminary pre-docking
cleaning of hulls from the fouling products possible.
It is deemed that the ideal working element of the said method is the
surrounding water that serves as a constantly reproducing cleaning instrument.
Water under great pressure (30-50 mPa) is used for under-water cleaning.
Experiments showed that the jet method could not destroy shells of fouling
organisms but removed seaweed, bivalves and also the slime. Evidently,
the reason of this phenomenon is that when the water jet flows under water
its energy is spent for creation of whirls that flow the firm and hard
shells round. This leads to the conclusion that it is expedient to include
into the jet going out of the nozzle hard metallic elements to transfer
the energy of the jet to the shells to be destroyed. The number of movements
of plates should exceed the value of impulse sufficient for destruction
of the shell. The front edge of the instrument which is supposed to bit
the shell with the purpose of shifting or removing it should be made not
cutting with a sharp edge but mortising. When the workload is cyclical
the instrument performs as a vibrating device. That allows to develop
much higher effort than it could be if the workload is static.
Proceeding from the above the instrument to be developed should represent
a rigid construction of plates that affect the shell in the impulse way
with the periodicity determined by the speed of the circle movement and
number of plates.
The proposed method is able to solve the contradicting task of finding
a reliable way of removing the fouling objects from the under-water part
of the hull and preserving the existing varnishing and painting and at
the same time of reducing the energy consumption and increasing the efficiency
of the cleaning process.
Improvement of electrical-hydro-impulsive technology
in shipbuilding and ship repairing
V.P. Yakovlev, KSTU
The electrical-hydro-impulsive (EHI) technology has occupied its place
in the industry as one of the up-to-date technological processes. It allows
to directly use the electrical energy for creation of hydro-dynamic disturbances
for the purpose of treatment of materials. The EHI technology has begun
to be applied in the shipbuilding and ship repairing just recently but
it has already showed its advantage over the traditional treatment methods.
The EHI technology is applied for beating-out of worn pipes and expanding
of new ones in heat-exchanging devices of fishing vessels, for cleaning
the inside walls of the pipes, for breaking ice around the vessels being
docked, for broadening the sleeves to fit the repair size, for cleaning
the jacket system of an internal-combustion engine. It also can be applied
in such technological processes which need directed strong and dozed mechanical
action, for instance, for extracting the defected propellers, for making
passages in ice, for fighting ice accretion, for repairing the mechanisms,
preventive removing fouling objects, etc.
The researches resulted in creation of a lamellar exploding conductor
having not an inductive but capacity character of load. But its main advantage
is that it provides in the pre-disruptive phase of the discharge high
resistance that ensures that the energy is reflected into the line. After
the disruption is performed the active resistance sharply goes down to
the necessary value which is determined by the resistance of ionized particles
in the channel having the prescribed value. As a result the electrical
efficiency of the discharge increased up to 60%.
Analysis of Characteristics of Jacks of Different Makes
S. Sedoush, mechanical engineer, candidate of technical science,
director of Gidrodon
The article tells about the comparative analysis of various hydraulic
jacks based on several common parameters. The objects under the analysis
were hydraulic jacks made of alloyed steel, having normal height, spring
return of a piston to the initial position, capacity of 15-100 tons, stroke
of 150-260 mm and working pressure of 630 bars. The makes under the consideration
were Enerpac (USA), HidrUM (CIS), Hi-force (UK), Holmatro (Netherlands),
Magnus (UK), Power Team (USA), Simplex (USA) and two Russian trading companies
who have been trying lately to design jacks of their own — Agro Yur and
The parameters on the basis of which the analysis has been carried out
- - price;
- - weight;
- - minimum height;
- - stroke;
- - availability of maintenance service;
- - height-stroke ratio;
- - own weight-load weight ratio;
- - price of one kilo of a jack;
- - price of lifting 1 t per 1 mm.
The analysis showed that according to the majority of considered
parameters the leader is the HidrUM jack. The constructive design of the
devices of this make is worked up by 3-43% better than of the others and
the cost of production of HidrUM jacks is by 16-45% lower. As a result
the consumer is provided with a lighter jack at an affordable price being
cheap in operation and with the lowest price of lifting 1 ton per 1 mm.
HidrUM jacks have the longest guarantee period and their seals are made
of widely spread materials. Apart from that only HidrUM guarantees replacement
of their equipment in case of its malfunction within 15 months from the
day of sale.
Study of Actual Accuracy of Working Lines of Assembly-Welding
Jigs and Potential of Improving It
A.P. Ivanov, KSTU
The accuracy of observance of assembly parameters is one of the most important
characteristics of the quality of technological processes. This fully
applies to complicated, labour consuming processes of assembling panels
of ship's hull. The study into the mechanism of accumulation of errors
of panel assembly with due regard for various construction-technological
factors not only proved the prevailing influence of the accuracy of the
working lines of assembly-welding armature on the resulting accuracy of
the forms of the basic panel sheets but also allowed to find out the main
reasons of the low accuracy of the armature lines and the ways of improving
The objects of the investigation were widely spread in shipbuilding and
ship repairing special jigs made of sets of demountable templates fixed
on the self-dependent bases.
The main calculation parameters of the errors to be studied were coordinates
of the middle and lower and upper limits of the template. The analyses
of accuracy of the working surface of the jigs were performed separately
for its flat and curving (with small and big curvature) parts and also
separately for newly manufactured armature and used armature delivered
after a long storage.
The analysis showed that the low accuracy of the working lines results
from the imperfection of the constructive design of the armature, of the
technology of manufacturing it and peculiarities of exploitation of the
jigs. The main contribution into the accumulative error of the jig lines
is brought by the errors occurring in marking-off and turning of the working
edges of the templates and also by considerable errors accompanying sitting
of the latter according to the marks on the control level.
Winding up the analysis of the actual accuracy of the working lines of
the jigs under the study and reasons of its low accuracy it is possible
to draw a conclusion that introduction of any certain technical and technological
measures will not be of any considerable effect and will not allow to
bring the errors of jig lines within the limits of permissible fluctuations.
Due to this the attempt has been taken to develop a new construction of
armature and a brand new technology of manufacturing it which could ensure
a considerable reduction of errors caused by the manufacturing process
and exploitation. It is reached by means of applying a new constructive
scheme of setting and fixing the templates of a jig on its base. The working
element of such armature is a demountable template made by means of plasma
cutting machines with a programmed control ensuring +5 mm accuracy of
Improvement of Methods and Means of Cleaning Grease- and Mazut-Soiled
V.P. Yakovlev, S.M. Kasperuk, KSTU
The analysis of the existing methods of cleaning mazut-soiled tanks showed
that their efficiency leaves much to be desired and the study in respect
of methods and means of grease soiled tanks proved that they are not only
inefficient but also wrong.
The main problem in respect of cleaning grease-soiled tanks is that none
of the existing methods can remove a dense film 2-3 mm thick into which
a friable thick layer of grease turns. The existing hydro monitors are
only able to cut and beat this film off here and there, consequently for
the purpose of its complete removal new constructive and technological
solutions are needed. Till now complete removal and reduction of this
thick film to small fragments have not been obtained and the cleaning
is finalized manually with the help of scrapers.
Mazut-soiled water for fishing vessels is mainly kept in the tanks located
between bottoms, it is characterized by a high density and when it is
cold outside it clogs hoses and cargo pumps up. In regard of this it is
expedient to emulsify it to decrease the density and to heat up in a cold
period. Application of special emulsifying agents including ultra-sonic
ones showed that they are not more efficient than emulsifying by means
The innovations proposed by the authors in respect of the technology of
cleaning grease-soiled tanks are based on the analysis of the physical
parameters of the fish oil. Due to the property of the fish oil to get
polymerized and turn into a thick film when affected by a high temperature
there is no point in washing it off with the help of hot water or treat
the grease-soiled tanks with hot steam. The most difficult task is removal
of foamed into clots layer of the fish oil staying on the surface that
is done manually.
The authors developed a device floating on the surface of the greased
water, emulsifying clots of the fish oil and sucking them out through
a ratchet. Simultaneously, the hydro monitor being fixed on the same float
washes the bulkhead surfaces with horizontal jets. It is expedient to
use warm water having temperature of 25-350C and instead of various cleaning
liquids being problematic to discharge to use the salt solution which
can be discharged according to the environmental norms and which has proved
efficient when applied in cleaning the grease-soiled tanks of tanker Lokbatan.
Improvement of Efficiency of Cutting Ships for Scrap on Kaliningrad
A.P. Ivanov, S.V. Diatchenko, O.V. Zharikova, KSTU
Utilization of worn out ships of various types and purposes is an important
and rather difficult issue. The reason is that on the one hand there is
a big number of various constructive designs of the cutting objects and
on the other hand there is no substantially grounded system of solving
After studying and formalizing the cutting processes 12 typical technological
operations have been determined. Among the necessary and sufficient indices
of the efficiency of various ship cutting technologies there are cost,
labour consumption and duration of cutting work, technological means being
used and organization of the works. The task of choosing the rational
technological scheme of ship cutting has two stages of solving. The first
stage includes selection from the number of all possible technological
ship cutting schemes of those which can be applied for a concrete ship
and in concrete conditions of a certain enterprise with due regard to
restrictions. The second stage comprises of a comparative technical-economic
analysis of the selected options of technological schemes and determination
of the most efficient.
As a result of carried-out studies it has been detected that subject to
the conditions of a basic enterprise the most efficient option of technological
scheme of typical ship cutting is a technology providing for scraping
of a floating hull by means of a sectional gas cutting followed by working
up of a bottom part with the help of elongated cumulative discharges.
Rules of Classifying, Designing, Construction and Equipping of Small
V.S. Krasyuk, KSTU
The order of Goskomrybolovstvo of RF # 15 of 15.06.1999 approves the Rules
of classifying, designing, construction and equipping of small vessels
of the fishing fleet (the Rules) developed by institute Giprorybflot jointly
with the Shipbuilding Department of the Kaliningrad State Technical University.
The Rules provide for the introduction of the State supervision over small
vessels of the Russian fishing fleet. The duties of the State supervision
authority include consideration and approving of the technical documentation
on construction, modernization and re-equipping of vessels and also periodical
survey and issuing of documents verifying safety of a ship.
The structure and organization of activity of the State supervision authority
will be to the major part analogous to those of the Sea and River Registers
but the practical application of the norms and requirements will be more
For instance, the supervision authority is entitled to partially or completely
exempt the vessel from fulfillment of certain regulations and requirements
of the Rules in case their application is deemed to be inexpedient or
impossible under certain conditions and concrete circumstances. In this
case the vessel is provided with a special certificate verifying exemption
from the Rules.
In the major part of the states and international organizations (IMO)
a size on the basis if which a ship is deemed to be small-sized applies
to the maximum length of 24 m (80 feet). Within this range it is allowed
for ships to have such differences in other important classifying parameters
that to great extent the ship length is deprived of its determining role
in the classification of ships.
Rating of self-propelling ships as small-sized on the basis of the engine
capacity without due regard to the size limitations can lead to emergency
of self-propelling ships with the low engine capacity that can rather
be called low-capacity than small-sized vessels while not self-propelling
vessels regulated by the gross tonnage parameter with good reason can
be deemed as low-tonnage ones.
The approach and principles of setting norms for parameters of small-sized
vessels are mainly influenced by the nature and ecological, fishery and
economic conditions of the country and its regions.
Rating of ships as small-sized on the basis of certain classification
indices in its turn performs a determining influence on their architecture
and technical characteristics and parameters to be normalized as when
building ships the ship owners naturally wish to bring the measures of
norms down especially if these norms decrease the economic efficiency
of the vessel.
The example can be the evolution of the Scottish coastal fishing fleet
after in 1975 the Rules for securing safety of fishing ships were introduced.
The Rules provided for extension and toughening of requirements applied
to the ships depending on their length: under 10,0 m, under 12,0 m, under
16,5 m, under 24,4 m and more than 24,4 m. The ships of under 12,0 m are
exempt from the requirements on stability and freeboard and are subject
only to safety means and fire-fighting equipment requirements. As a result
by 1989 the typical Scottish vessels turned out to be of 9,95 m, 11,99
m, 16,25 m and 24,39 m.
By Coasts of Maghrib
The author was onboard of the Russian exploratory ship that performed
the salvage operation by the coasts of the Maghrib — it is an ancient
name of the today's Morocco. The task of the vessel was to explore the
distribution of fish resources and to determine the number level of commercial
fish and sea life. The method applied was a trawl survey on various depths
— from minimum approachable to 900 m. The points of trawling were located
on the imaginary lines perpendicular to the coast line. These imaginary
lines would cut the whole water area of Morocco into segments. Each segment
needed 10-12 trawlings on minimum and maximum reachable depths. While
doing this work the crew had a chance to see all the details of the Maghrib
coast. On its slopes there were hamlets, with houses and mosques scattered
all over. From time to time there appeared strict grey rectangulars —
remnants of the Portuguese forts. Two thousand years ago this land witnessed
conquers of Phoenicians and Romans.
On one day the crewmembers noticed a small fishing boat having fire onboard.
The vessel headed for the salvage operation. It was seen that the burning
part was a deck superstructure. The fishermen were busy with some strange
things: one man threw over the board some cistern tied up on one end,
the other man did the same with the door. Then the boat began sinking.
The fishermen jumped into the water trying to reach the wooden things
thrown there before. It became clear — they did not have fire. They were
sinking and set fire to their boat intentionally so that to attract attention.
The history of this shipwreck is simple. It is typical for the Moroccan
fishermen. It is characteristic for their wooden boats that the base of
the engine is fixed directly on the wooden bottom by through bolts. Of
course they get corroded. And it is natural that the day comes when a
bigger or smaller piece of bottom falls off. The rest is clear. Needs
to be added that the crew of six members did not have any life jacket.
When the boat began sinking the fishermen hastened making the floating
appliances from the available things. Suddenly they noticed another fishing
boat within the visibility limit. They signaled with the only rocket they
had — of course, there was no radio at their disposal. It seemed that
the boat slowed down. Then the master and the engineer — the only two
more or less literate people on the boat — decided to float to the other
boat. They launched a floating appliance of some kind and rowed. But then
the storm came and the two were carried by waves.
At this moment the Russian vessel appeared. One of the Moroccans suggested
to use their whole boat as a signal and to set fire to the deck superstructure.
They were saved.
Later the cable was received saying that the Spanish fishing vessel picked
up the master and the engineer — one of them being dead.
Having experienced the salvation the Russian ship headed further to the
south along the Atlantic facade of the native land of Arabic fairy-tales.
AEF — Origin of Elements
P.A. Chagin, President of the Association of Sea Captains of the
The author was not only the witness but also one of the participants of
formation of the fishery industry in the Kaliningrad region. He tells
about the details of this process.
Koenigsberg was seized by the Soviet troops in April of 1945 and on the
12th of June already the Baltic State Fishing Trust was established after
the resolution of the State Committee of Defense # 9052 and the order
of the People's Committee of Fish Industry of the USSR # 205 dated June
14. Its main task was organization and development of the fishing industry
on the territory of the newly established Koenigsberg region (as from
the 4th of June 1946 — the Kaliningrad region). The trust received trawlers,
fishing boats and other survived trophies. On the basis of these the coastal
fishing in the bays and in the area of Noikouren (today — Pionerskiy)
began. In the very beginning the local Germans who knew the fishing grounds
and were well experienced were engaged in the works. But by passage of
time new Koenigsberg citizens would learn local waters, fishing species
In 1948 Baltgosrybtrest (the Baltic State Fish Trust) organized the first
herring expedition to the North Sea. A group of vessels comprising of
three sail-motor schooners headed for Iceland. This trip brought a relative
success and herring to Kaliningrad.
Formation of AEF (the Administration of Expedition Fishery) was promoted
by the experience obtained in this first expedition. So that to expand
the fishery AEF was established on the 8th of October 1949 after the order
of Baltgosrybtrest and was given a fleet consisting of 14 seiners and
14 medium catching trawlers.
Through years of successful work AEF developed into one of the biggest
fishing organizations of the Kaliningrad region which provided up to 50%
of the municipal budget. By the end of 1959 AEF had 165 medium catching
trawlers, 15 floating fish-factories, its own tankers and salvage tugs.
Its fleet was the first to develop the area of Big Newfoundland Bank and
Georgia Bank, it began catching sardines in the area near Green Cape.
The participant of the last mentioned expedition was the first ship with
the capacity of 5000-7000 hp - the Kazan and three medium trawlers. Expansion
of the fishery areas, increase in the number of vessels demanded a proper
reorganization of the management system. AEF in fact became an ancestor
of many fishing enterprises. When there appeared large-capacity vessels
up to 5000-7000 hp they organized the administration of the refrigerating
fleet called "Zaprybkholodflot". And in 1963 AEF was reorganized
into "The Kaliningrad Base of the Oceanic Fishing Fleet".
Thus in the course of only two decades the fishing industry of the Kaliningrad
region was formed thanks to the efforts of its pioneers. In 1970-80 the
industry was in its flourishing. The Kaliningrad fishermen worked in almost
all regions of the world ocean.
Translated by Galina