SUMMARY 4 (9) 99
From the Editor-in Chief
Is not there a time to stop?
To our mind it is necessary for the state bodies to change their distorted opinion about historical benefit of the private property, which had been suggested by Russian government too early. And it is most interesting: despite of its absolutely fatal results the privatization has been continuing still. Nobody want to buy that already had been broken and dragged apart and a real investment capital long ago left the country.
And there was not necessity for such a scale fishery industry privatization on new technology - or to drag apart. It is a high time to stop fishing industry breakdown and to stabilize situation. The reforms in fishing industry may to begin after re-privatization only and all fishing enterprises returning under state managing. It is not permissible for high state officials to confuse their political ambitions with the state economic interests.
Cooperation of the Northern-German
Land Shlezvig-Golshtein with Russian regions
European Union expansion to East has transformed federal German land Shlezvig-Golshtein from EU outlying districts to one of the principal common European interests crossing centres. Exactly in 1988 there was born an idea of deepening and widening process of international sub-regional cooperation.
Most north German land has a population for about 2,7 million people and a territory 15 730 square kilometres with the city Kiel as a capital. In 1996 export from Shlezvig-Golshtein to the Baltic States was approximately 2,5 billion DM (17,38% of total), import from the Baltic States was for about 5 billion DM. In 1997 in Kiel at the Forum on the Baltic cooperation there was stressed an idea of full-scale involve Russian the Baltic and first of all Saint-Pe ters burg, Leningrad and Kaliningrad regions entities into international cooperation system with a purpose of stability securing through stability. Parliament and a government of the Shlez vig-Golshtein are ready to support the projects, which directed to Russian the Baltic Sea regions development in the TACIS and PHARE programs links and on the non-governmental organizations level.
The main city of land Kiel has the partnership ties with two Russian cities - Kaliningrad and Sovetsk in some spheres of cultural and public life. In Kaliningrad there has been established a representation - Hansean Bureau Kaliningrad.
A special place in that process has the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS). The development of international cooperation accordingly to Russia was enough grounded by Finland in 1997 in the initiative of the Northern Dimension of the European Union, which was supported by the German federal government.
Nowadays at the Baltic there have been realizing more than thousand regional under-programs with Federal Republic of Germany and Russian Federation. Ger ma ny as a most developed EU members take part the first-hand participation in these processes with not only material and financial, but and political assistance. The main role in that German activiry belongs to Shlezvig-Golshtein with its thesis - "The Baltic is our common house". Its traditional cooperation with Kaliningrad, Lenin grad regions and Saint-Petersburg now involved to other Russian regions including Karelia, Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Novgo rod and Pskov regions, and one can say with certainty that German-Russian interregional cooperation joined into its development new phase and directed to a long-term perspective.
Military and Political State in the
Baltic Maritime Zone at the End of XX Century and its Prospects in XXI
An eldest Russian navy - the Baltic Fleet has been preparing to mark in 2003 (18.05) its 300th anniversary in a third millenium. The Baltic Fleet's existence in the Baltic region is an objective and historically justified necessity, one of sine qua non of Russia's security.
Due to Warsaw Treaty and the Soviet Union disintegration, NATO's expansion to East geopolitical situation in a world and in the Baltic region within last decade has been changed cardinal. Military power in interstate relations still remains as a traditional means of a political object gaining despite to world's states majority considering the war as a great national calamity and the human civilization existence threat. Moreover, a direct military power's application during last decade more and more is connecting with the USA and NATO peacemaking activity.
NATO's plans of expansion have a purpose to fulfill a vacuum of military force in Europe after the USSR and Warsaw Treaty disintegration and effective influence in the Baltic region as in announced by the USA interests zone and considerable Russia's role and influence limitation. The base of the USA and NATO presence is signed in January 1998 in American-Baltic charter about partnership, which permits them to increase a volumes of military, technical and economic assistance to the Baltic states (weapons supplying in 1997 - 1,5 million $, 1998 - 4,1 million $).
Practical realization of the Baltic States infrastructure has been ensuring under Partnership for the Sake of Peace Program cover including became traditional exercises with a main purpose to create the joint Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian units according to NATO's standard.
Nowadays in NATO there has been created a special working body - Committee on assistance organization to the Baltic States in creation: a joint Baltic ships division; air space and air traffic managing control united system; the Baltic military college (all will be finished according to plans till 2003).
Besides in a Polish city Shcecin there has been completing a joint Polish-German-Danish army corps North-East.
All above-stated at the threshold of XXI century means:
Moreover after a "cold war" finishing Russian Navy including the Baltic Fleet has been enduring not the best times due to the USSR and Warsaw Treaty disintegration and troops and forces withdrawal in 1991-1994, which remained the fleet without most part of its infrastructure and divided its basing system by the Baltic States in two parts. 60 thousand people were reduced at the Baltic Fleet including 16 thousand officers, mitchmans and praporshciks. Also the Baltic Fleet was reduced in a three times in the number of ships.
In such a conditions there may be the next items of military and political situation in XXI century in the Baltic region:
Due to military and political situation within XX century last decade and its development in XXI century Russian President has been decided to create in the Kaliningrad region, surrounded by foreign states, to create a new different type operative and strategic territorial large command of Military Forces, which provides a tasks of three spheres under leading role and historical name - the Baltic Fleet, which includes: balanced naval forces (99 ships); naval aviation (more than 112 combat and transport airplanes and helicopters); Kalini ngrad anti-aircraft area (the best in Russian Military Forces); fleet's land and coastal troops (to 850 tanks, 550 systems of volley's fire, 350 ones of artillery systems); united bodies of operational, technical and logistic support. As a whole there has been created at the West of Russia the defensive, mobile and more economical structure with a high operational readiness and operating efficiency preservation. The Baltic Fleet's participation in a strategic and command and staff exercise in June 1999 the (ZAPAD-99) WEST-99 under Russian Defence Minister Marshal Igor Sergeev command was an exam of its operating efficiency.
Russia has been made and has been making all for normal peaceful processes, confidence and cooperation in order to reduce international tension in the Baltic Sea zone. Russia after to sea powers number joining has been always the maritime free trade supporter. It is more easily to arrange matters between us, military men, than between political figures. During last decade the ships, vessels and yachts of the Baltic Fleet have been called to 85 ports of 34 European, Asian, African and American countries. In one's turn the ports and aerodromes of the Baltic Fleet have been visited 76 times foreign ships (109 ones) and airplanes (12 ones). The Fleet has been visited by 79 delegations with high military, naval officials at the head and foreign state bodies heads. I hope it will be so in the XXI st century.
Russia and the Baltic Fleet in accordance with the Stockholm's Conference requirements inform the region's countries about their large exercises, invite the observers and mass media representatives to exercises and without obstacles permit inspections on their territory (not less than 3 times a year). All of it is favour for confidence. There is also a system of bilateral agreements with the USA (1972), Great Britain (1986), Germany (1988), France, Canada and Italy (1989), Nether lands, Norway and Spain (1990) on the sea incidents prevention. The Baltic Fleet has its own plan on an ecological security on 1997-2000. The Fleet provides at practice the open sea conception. More than 30 times within 1994-1999 the Baltic Fleet's forces took part in a joint naval actions with foreign navies and troops.
Due to peace threat remaining from the sea directions including the Baltic region in XXI st century it will be a question about confidence measures expansion and on naval activity including the Baltic Sea. And in our opinion an idea about International Centre of operational information in the Baltic region creation will be enough fruitful. There is no doubt than in a third millenium the Baltic Fleet will be continue and perfect its activity in a field of cooperation and confidence with a navies of the Baltic Sea including the NATO members, and it is naturally that it all should be consolidate in a XXIst century in the according intergovernmental documents and possible even with a responsibility for nonfeasance definition.
The Samum is Dying to Sea
Samum (Arabian) is a dry hot wind in the North Africa and Arabian peninsula deserts. Samum is often accompanied with the sandy storms (the Soviet Encyclopaedic Dictionary, 1987).
The main tactical and technical characteristics of the SAMUM - a 2nd rank hover-ship (project 1239 the "Sivuch"):
Crew: near 80 men.
A rocket hover-ship (RHS) the Samum was launched seven years ago. But now only she is going to take place in combat number of the Baltic Fleet. 1999 financing for her finishing, shipyard and state run trials program completing allowed again to renew a ship's commissioning in line. The hover-ship had been docked in Baltyjsk, and in September her crew have begun to fulfill the tasks at sea. That ship was built in Zelenodol'sk, and the chief designer of project Valerian Korol'kov (Central Design Bureau Almaz) arrived from Saint-Peters burg with many representatives of various enterprises, which tock part in hover-ship's creation.
Valerian Korol'kov told us:
Foreign editions have wrote much about our project, and it is necessary to say opposite the Jane's Fighting Ships 1989-1999 that the project 1239 building has been putted off due to unreliability of the first two ones - their building was putting off due to political and economic reasons.
That hover ship has been created as in a development of 1234 and 1234.1 projects due to their limited possibility for armament's placing. The Samum is able to have a 50-knots speed under moderate sea (4 balls) and rather rough sea (5 balls, wave - 3.5 metres) - more 40 knots. There are 36 variants of her two main engines and three regimes of moving. The Black Fleet's exploitation experiment showed that the 1239 project is an optimal attack craft for the ice-free sea theatre of naval operations with a considerable reinforcement of guided-missiles boats brigades. The 1239 project term of operation is 15 years, and the Bora is on water already within 13 years with a 12 000 miles passed and 3% wearing rate.
A hover-ship the Samum is classical fighting ship and it is not necessary to afraid her and make the best use her wide opportunities. A great role in the ship's preservation belongs to her first and the only commanding officer - captain 2nd rank Victor Maksimov. By the way, the hover-ships in our country have been elabo rating from a middle of 20-s - for example 5 boats of the professor Levkov.
The 1239 project is a staging step in the Central Marine Design Bureau Almaz, which is able to elaborate for any client the various naval ships and merchant vessels (ferries) with an air cushion principle, and even it will be possible to deliver a cargo from Saint-Petersburg to Kaliningrad during 20 hours today it is a reality.
Fishing Branch - Time to Touch Down
In 1999 has been created a Fishery Committee under the Kaliningrad region administration, but there is no a real work until. Nine fishing vessels were sold outside Kaliningrad. Its fishing industry has no a concrete perspective development program.
Yury Sinelnik's appointment as a head of Fishery Committee in Moscow has not marked until by a drastic change to stabilization, but we shall be hope for better one.
But in Murmansk an essential fleet of the North basin has been preserved and dispersed in some fishery areas:
Nowadays there is a critical situation in Open Stock Company the Zapryba with 31,6 % of state shares, but the authorities do not take part in its managing, and it is necessary to make there:
In our opinion some quotas should be distribute, and other (most) part should be sell on auction. Fishery in common quota links should be without division between regions and enterprises, which will raise not efficiency of fleet and raw resources utilization, but improve an investment climate in fishing branch. And raw material base superfluous could lead to disaster:
It is very difficult to tell about fishery technique development due to liquidation of enterprises such as SC Rybtech centre, SC Mateo, and SC MariNPO gradually transformation from the scientific-industrial enterprise to immovable property owner. There is enough better business at the fishery instruments producers such as Fishering-Service, but at the Vaer (shareholder - Zapryba) situation is critical because Zapryba'sincapability to management and to pay for their production.
There is no doubt that OSC "PCZ Jantar" is a leading shipbuilding enterprise in the Kaliningrad region. Former largest defence enterprise with 13 000 personnel nowadays is before a problem of bunkruptcy, and on its territory have been started the automobiles assembly production development. And Rus sian government meanwhile has been giving the various guarantees for ships building at the foreign shipyards, initiating a native shipbuilding death. Now in a ship-repair an offer has been prevailing demand, and it is very important that among ship-repairing ventures there have been appeared the symptoms to join their interests to international markets way out with the leading positions of SRP Jantar', Svet lovs kiy ship-repair yard, Rumpel, RTF- Engeneering and some others. But there is a problem for foreign vessels due to Russian frontier legislation to moor at the ship-repair yard berths (through ports only).
Concerning taxes policy the value-added tax on fish production from 10% up to 20% has been lead to considerable losses for a state treasury. Its optimal rate in our opinion may be not more 7% and the private employers should be equated with other legal persons concerning tax payment.
There is one else problem in fishing industry in our time - cadets of educational establishments' practice at the vessels and moreover - there is a problem to get a job after graduating for them. A very difficult question now - it is a question of discipline and hard drinking among fishermen.
Conception of personnel training
at the BALTIC State Fishery Academy and qualification and attestation
At the Baltic State Fishery Academy among not so many higher educational establishments there has been elaborated and realizing successfully the multi-purpose steeped multi-level training marine personnel and qualification rising system including Marine Lyceum, Marine College, Institute of professional skill level rising and the Baltic Stimulator's Centre, which has a certificate of quality ISO-9001, and for a transport complex specialists training.
Russian system of the specialists professional competency stipulates its three levels - 1st- auxiliary, 2nd - operational, 3rd - managing. And there is a documents special list for qualification rising and retraining. But there is a real necessity to conduct a work in regions on stimulators' technique creation for seamen retraining and attestation.
The Sea Commercial Port of Kaliningrad
Economic Activity Main Directions in 1999
1999 became for the CSC Sea Commercial Port of Kaliningrad a year of further industrial capacity development and real investment. Its fundamental investment project with a total sum needed more 10 million US dollars is the container terminal's reconstruction and modernization, which will give a possibility to increase its capacity from 15 000 containers up to 50 000-70 000 ones.
The second investment object is refrigerating warehouse building with a total expenses cost 300 000 $ on the port's own account. A big attention in 1999 there was paid to the unloading technique park renewing. In 1999 (9 months) the port's capital investments total to industrial infrastructure were more than 8,3 million roubles. Additionally to it there has been made a mayor repairs of all port fleet on a total sum of investment 4,3 million roubles. The medium salary in the port is 3 000 roubles.
In 1999 a cargoe turnover has raised on 0,9% (1 738 000 tonnes - 10 months), export raised on 10%, but the import was only 64% of 1998 level due to uncompetitive railway tariffs on general cargoes to the ports of Kaliningrad. Nowadays the port has a flexible tariff policy in order to attract the additional clients.
CSC the Sea Commercial Port of Kalinin grad has the next three tasks for its competitiveness rising:
Ship's Sequestrate as a Measure of
the Maritime Demand Ensuring
Chapter XXIII about the ship's sequestrate has a special place in a new Maritime Merchant Navigation Codex, because an old one of the USSR had not such a definition. According to MMNC article 388 a ship's sequestrate is possible on the maritime demand only. Article 389 has a list of the maritime demands and 4 conditions. According to MMNC the ship's sequestrate is possible even her is going to put to sea. Despite of the ship's sequestrate definition as her any delay - the delay is not the ship's sequestrate and it is possible not more than 72 hours only with a responsibility of authorities for the losses in case of baseless delay.
Dismissing from a sequestrate is possible only on a court's decision or enough security providing in acceptable form.
Together with the maritime demands ensuring the MMNC defines also the measures of sequestrated vessel's owner security measures except the cases of salary non-payment to captain and other crew members demands. But in a practice the decision about the ship's sequestrate is rather difficult due to court demand necessity and a time require. All it of course requires the changes in the process legislation concerning the terms reducing for the maritime demands ensuring measures by the courts.
A question about the person's guarantees, to which a claim has been laid instead of the vessel's sequestrate, is also very difficult because of possibility losses for him, so it is necessary a serious relation to the ship's sequestrate demand.
About the International Baltic Sea
Fishery Commission (IBSFC) XXVth Session Results
From 6 to 10 th of September 1999 in Warsaw there has been the 25 th jubilee IBSFC session. The delegations of Russia, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, European Union (the Baltic States, Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Finland) took par there.
43 questions have been included there in the item of that session. Its participants the main attention was paid to cod, herring, sprat resources condition and their preservation measures. Information about Program the Baltic-21 fulfillment and the Working groups on salmon control and resources of cod, herring and sprat managing strategy have been heard. Besides there were examined the administrative and financial questions. The cod, herring, sprat quotas development reducing in 1999 by all countries was marked at the session also due to bad resources state and a raw material and fish production realization (table 1).
Resources condition and Common Per mis sib le Catch (CPC) are the next:
Their distribution may be seen at the tables 3, 4, 5.
The next regulating measures have been elaborated there:
A special working group has been created for the resources management strategy definition, but to our regret without Russian representative. A decision was adopted at the session to continue a work on cooperation widening of national fishery control and regulation bodies.
Russian delegation at the XXVth IFSBC session has guaranteed the decisions adoption in accordance with Russian interests in the Baltic Sea. We consider to suggest IFSBK working effectiveness rising and it is very important for Russia to take part in all working groups meetings. We consider also a very dangerous the medium terms of exploitation fishing vessels selling due to our quotas development possibilities reducing in the Baltic Sea. It is necessary for us to realize the Baltic Salmon Program and first of all in a part of its natural reproduction restoration scales.
Kaliningrad Fishermen in the North
Pacific - Review of Fishery
The North Pacific is a traditional international and native fishery area. Within last years Russian fleet has been leaving the far fishery areas, and so significance of nearest ones has been rising.
Nowadays in the North Pacific are concentrated almost all large and medium size trawlers of the Kaliningrad region. Medium trawlers have been conducting fishery of cod and other bottom fish (catfish, haddock, red-fish) as an additional catch by the bottom trawls.
Cod fishery has been regulating in the links of Russian-Norwegian Fishery Com mis sion. Due to the Barents Sea is a traditional fishery area of the North fishermen, a cod's quotas has been distributing mostly between the ventures of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Karelia. So in 1998 the Kaliningrad's quota was 9,8 thousand tonnes of 301 thousand tonnes total. In the middle of 90-s the cod's resource was in a good condition, but from 1997 it began to reduce continually. Russian quota also had been reduced up to 224,5 thousand tonnes including 5,7 thousand tonnes for the Kaliningrad fishermen.
In 1994-1997 the medium size trawlers daily catch was 10-15 tonnes in summer, in 1998 the catches have been reduced up to 8-9 tonnes and in 1999 - up to 5-7 tonnes. According to the Polar Scientific and Research Institute in a nearest years there will be continue the cod's resource reducing, and due to that it is expected the next quota's reducing in 2000.
But despite to all difficulties a cod's fishery still has been remaining an attractive for fishermen due to prices rising. The fishery in the Barents Sea is very good combined with a fishery in the Baltic Sea: a peak of fishery in the first area is in summer, and in the Baltic Sea to catch the Baltic herring and sprat it is better from October till April. There is also a shrimp fishery in the Barents Sea without any quotas with the best period from February till October. In the early 90-s Russian shrimp fishery was on rising with up to 50-60 vessels participation, daily catch3-4 tonnes and the more 20 000 tonnes catch total. In 1998 five medium size trawlers from the Kaliningrad region and 14 ones from the North area were on fishery with a catch approximately 4,8 thousand tonnes. In 1999 a fishery was with 10-20 North vessels and 3-12 trawlers from Kaliningrad and Pionerskiy with a total catch at the end of September for about 10 000 tonnes of shrimp including 2,7 thousand tonnes - the share of the Kaliningrad fleet.
A large size of Russian fleet was on fishery of herring, blue whiting and mackerel in the Norwegian Sea and open areas of the North Pacific in 1999 with 60-70 vessels including 33 trawlers from Kaliningrad. The resources of these three species there are in a good condition, but the catch of mackerel was less than in 1998. The catch of blue whiting has been raised from 4,3 thousand tonnes in 1998 up to 11,5 thousand tonnes in 1999. Kaliningrad vessels catch of red-fish in the Sea of Irminger was 2,7 thousand tonnes of 12,2 thousand total in 1999 (months) in comparison with 2,4 and 22,8 thousand tonnes accordingly in 1998. Fishery capacity in the Sea of Irmin ger has real reducing tendency due to intensive exploitation.
In other fishery area of the North Pacific Russian presence has been reduced to minimum because of the main fishery species depressive state and a strong regulations. Under reviewing the catches of the Ka li ningrad region vessels in the North Pacific (see picture 2) it is obvious that their main share is pelagic fishes of the Norwegian Sea - herring, mackerel and blue whiting. The catches rising is possible most really owing to blue whiting. So for the enterprises it is advisable to organize its more effective processing by surimi, fish meat and tinned fish producing. It is necessary to foresee also the Kaliningrad large vessels in a capelin fishery in the Barents Sea due to its resources rising.