SUMMURY 03 01
History of the Kaliningrad Sea Channel
The merchants of Konigsberg were interested in a direct sea shipping avoiding calling at Pillau for transshipment and at the middle of XIX c. agreed to finance works on maintenance of the required depth in the old fairway.
Finally in 1878 the Konigsberg merchants together with the Ministry of transport announced an open competition for the project of construction of the shipping track "sea-Konigsberg". The winner became building inspector of the Pillau harbour Hugo Natus who suggested to built a channel protected from the bay waters by artificial dikes.
The construction of the channel began in 1890 and was finished in 1901. The initial parameters were: average depth - 6.5 m, maximum breadth - about 80 m, breadth of fairway - 30-40 m. The channel further was reconstructed, the volume of ground taken from the cross section on the track Pillau - Konigsberg reached 11900000 cbm. The total length of dikes is 31,5 km.
In 1924 the moorages in Konigsberg were modernized and that required further deepening of the channel up to 8 m.
In the following years until the collapse of the Nazi regime the cargo turnover of the Kaliningrad ports remained on the level of 4500000 t per annum and the capacity of the channel was 4000 vessels per annum.
After the take over of Konigsberg by 1947 the channel was almost cleaned from the sunk vessels, logs and mines. The same year the dredging works were started during which 173000 cbm of ground were extracted. According to the investigation carried out in 1948 the depth of the channel was 7.6 m and the breadth was as follows: in the region of Baltijsk - 150 m, in the straight parts - 47.5 m, in the curvatures - 57.5 m, in the open part - 105 m, on the river Pregel - 70 m.
In 1972 the State Plan Committee issued a resolution that ordered the Ministry of Maritime Fleet of the USSR to carry out the reconstruction of the Kaliningrad Sea Channel. It began in 1979 on the basis of the project developed by Institute "Lenmorniiproekt" that presupposed the new dimensions of the channel: depth - 9.75 m and breadth - 80 m. These could enable to accept vessels with length of 185 m, breadth of 23 m and draft of 8.4 m. From 1979 till 1986 25% of the total volume of reconstruction works were fulfilled. As from 1986 no reconstruction works have been carried out.
In 1994 after the decree of the Government of the RF the Maritime Administration of the Kaliningrad port was created for the purpose of governing the sea ports. The channel was given under their management. During the following 7 years a lot of improvements were done: restoration of destroyed protective dikes, improvement of the system of electrical supply to the means of navigation barrier, purchase of a new hydrographic measuring complex Simrad equipped with multi-ray echo-sounder for better and quicker control over the channel's dimensions. Thanks to a big volume of dredging works the depth from Baltijsk entrance piers to PK-42 was increased up to 10.5 m and from PK-42 to port's harbours of PK-394 - up to 9 m, the breadth of the part between the entrance piers to Svetly was brought to 80 m, some curvatures were broadened. All these enhanced by the skills of the Kaliningrad pilots allows to take in the port vessels with length of 175 m and displacement of 25000 t. On the banks new transshipment facilities continue to emerge. The length of the Channel today is 43 km and 150 m.
Specialized skate fishery in Southern-Western
In spite of the fact that skate is absent in the Russian cuisine and one can hardly find this fish on the store shelves in Asian and Mediterranean countries it is very popular. The yearly catch of this bottom cartilaginous fish is not small - in the second half of 1990s it reached 157-173 th. tons. It is mainly fished as bottom trawling by-catch but in certain areas it is caught purposely.
In major parts of subtropical, temperate and polar zones of the World Ocean soles came out the winners in the fight for survival while on the Falkland shelf and adjacent regions of the Patagonian shelf the result was vice versa due to the ability of skates to survive here the last ice forming.
Specialized fishing licences for skate catching in the Falkland waters were introduced in 1994. Prior to this time skates were fished as massive by-catch during fishery of other fish species. After the introduction of the licence system (1994-2000) the total catch amounted to 1.4-4.8 th. tons although it was much higher before - 3.0-11.9 th. tons in 1990-1993.
The specialized skate fishery is conducted by Korean fishermen in the Northern part of the Falkland shelf with the use of bottom trawls. The Southern shelf is reserved for squid-loligo fishery and skate catchers are not allowed there. The fishery is performed by middle tonnage vessels 24 hours round.
Recently there has been noted an unpleasant decreasing tendency in skate catches. Apart from that the bottom trawls ruin grounds and destroy fauna of invertebrates and that negatively affects the ecological system. So, the perspectives of the largest specialized skate ground are not that promising although the UK has not yet taken any actions and this matter presently is not discussed seriously.
Perspectives of Russian tuna fishery
in World Ocean
The world output of sea fish decreased from 93.3 mln. tons in 1997 to 86.3 mln. tons in 1998. Catching of tuna in the same period increased from 3.6 mln. tons to 4.1 mln. tons. The share of tuna in the world production is 5.2% and the cost of tuna products is estimated to be USD 5-7 mln.
The tuna fishery in the World Ocean is intensive and is conducted mainly in tropical and subtropical waters. The fishery covers all the tuna species: albacore, yellowfin tuna, Atlantic albacore, black tuna, southern bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, bluefin tuna, bonito, 2 species of skipjack, 3 species of black skipjack. The major part of the world output is bonito (45%) and yellowfin tuna (28%). The leading catching nations are Japan - 16% of the world catch, Taiwan - 11%, Indonesia and Philippines - each 8%, Southern Korea - 6%, Span, USA, Mexico, France - each 5%. Russian fishery amounts to less than 1% of the total catch. 66.5% of the total catch falls on the Pacific Ocean, 20.7% - on the Indian Ocean and 12.8% - on the Atlantic Ocean.
In the Atlantic Ocean the main region of the tuna fishery is the Central-Eastern Atlantic (CEA) where they catch up to 70% out of which about two thirds are taken in the 200-miles exclusive economic zones. In the catch the prevailing species are bonito, yellowfin and bigeye tuna. The total catch reaches 280-336 th. tons.
The estimation of stocks, total allowable catch (TAC) and determination of the protective measures in the Atlantic Ocean are carried out by the International Committee for Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT). Below is given the data for the Atlantic Ocean.
The stocks of various skipjack species are in good shape and underexploited. According to expert estimations the total catch of skipjack species may reach about 450 th. tons while today's catch is 25 th. tons.
On the whole the condition of the tuna stocks in the World Ocean is satisfactory. The reserves for extension of fishery are, first of all, underexploited stocks of certain species. In the Atlantic Ocean the reserve amounts to almost 50 th. tons of bonito and about 450 th. tons of various skipjack species. In the Indian Ocean the unerexploited reserve is about 120 th. tons of bonito and yellowfin tuna and can be increased on account of bluefin tuna and skipjack. These figures apply only to the deep sea zones. The catch can be increased on account of tuna stock in the EEZs of the coastal countries. In the Pacific Ocean the underexploited stocks are more than 800 th. tons of bonito and yellowfin. The additional reserve are skipjack species.
Tuna products are in very good demand at the world market and are highly valued. The price of tuna caught by a long liner and deeply frozen reaches as high as USD 7000 and tuna taken by a purse seiner depending on the species at the European market is USD 500-1100, Thai and Japanese markets - USD 800-1300. The ever highest price of USD 3500 was registered in Japan in 1998. The price of tuna fillet is stable on the level of USD 43-48 per kilo.
The revival of the Russian tuna fleet should be oriented to purse seine and long line fishing. Russian seamen have a longtime experience of tuna catching and the accumulated scientific data allows to provide with stocks the year round purse seine and long line fishery in various regions of the World Ocean. The stability of tuna fishery during many years, constantly growing demand for tuna and by-catch products and high prices turn this commercial species into a very profitable and promising object.
From under water glame at fishery
The scientific fishing researches at all times solve the same problems: what to catch, where, how much and by what means. These questions are answered with the help of such discipline as technical oceanology that employs hydro acoustics, air and space survey, underwater techniques. The latter presupposes underwater submersion of a scientist himself or a video system substituting his organ of sight. The article is an attempt to look at the problems that are faced by the fishing science from the point of view of a hydronaut researcher from under water. There are many examples of how the underwater observation helped to form the true idea of the studied object.
So, the first problem is what and where to catch, the problem of searching for the fishery object especially when the latter is not traditional.
The striking example is beginning of rock grenadier fishery. Its stocks were discovered in the end of 1960s on the underwater mountains of the Northern-Atlantic ridge. The place was unknown and it was very difficult not only to exploit the stocks but to estimate them. In 1970 for the purpose of studying NAR the first Soviet autonomous deepwater apparatus "Sever-2" was constructed but due to the bureaucratic complications only in 1983 it was finally taken to the region of interest.
The underwater landscape was very singular, fish was much more abundant than thought before. The behaviour of rock grenadier turned out to be different from the existing ideas: the migration of the fish turned out to be not horizontal but vertical. Also the link between fish raises and ocean tides was determined. It became possible to predict appearance of the fish gatherings from underwater gorges into the pelagic zone where it is easier to fish.
The second problem is how to fish. In 1979 the author was on board of scientific vessel Artemida with the purpose of testing a new underwater apparatus Tetis. The vessel was catching badly. Everything seemed to be in order, acoustic devices showed the abundance of fish, the trawl master was experienced. At last they decided to go under water and see the trawl. After the trawl master saw the pictures he himself submerged and saw what mess the trawl turned out to be in. On the basis of his visual observation he adjusted the tackle so that the vessel began to catch properly.
The described case gave occasion to creation of the method of the controlling and preventive surveys of the gear of fishing vessels. The day productivity of fishing vessels after such surveys on account of elimination of the detected defects would increase by 31%.
One of the most efficient means of conservation of young fish is believed to be enlargement of the trawl mesh size. The small fish is supposed to leave through the bigger mesh. Nevertheless, the underwater observation of how the trawl is being filled by fish showed that the escaped fish becomes subject of the intense hydrodynamic whirls that press it against the trawl and damage it. As a result the fish is condemned to death. So, the glame from under water proved that the effect from the bigger mesh size is only seeming and the protective measures should be different - for example, a fishing ban for the regions of preferential habitat of young fish.
And the last but least problem - how much to fish. The problem of quotas is based on the scientific foundation - estimation of the fish stocks. The today's method is hydro acoustic survey. The whole system is based on the analysis of the trawl catch. But as underwater observation showed the composition of a catch is very different from the natural gathering. It turns out that the echo signal from the natural aggregate of fish is linked to the catch that is an absolutely different aggregate and then this data is transferred back onto the gathering. This is an incorrect method that leads to mistakes.
And again the way out is underwater observation. It provides the data not from a catch but from the natural surroundings, in situ. The way is: to make a series of video surveys of fish with simultaneous measuring of fish acoustic parameters and work out the relevant linkage. The rest is up to the acoustic technique. This is how the idea of video acoustic technology appeared that united underwater and hydro acoustic methods of estimation of commercial fish stocks.
Bellow-fish inhabits temperate and tropical waters of the World Ocean in the pelagic zone mainly 100-250 m deep. In the Northern part of the Atlantic Ocean there dwell one species of bellow-fish - Macrorhamphosus Scolopax (Linne) represented by two ecological types - scolopax and gracilis.
These are small epi-pelagic fish. The length of scolopax is rarely more than 17 cm and of gracilis is never more than 14 cm. In the periods of population growth the distribution of bellow-fish gets a mosaic pattern. The density of gatherings can be very high. After 10-15 minutes of trawling catches sometimes were 20-30 tons. Bellow-fish perform day vertical migrations and like majority of pelagic fish during day time they keep by the bottom or at big depths and in twilight and night move to the water thickness.
The main part of the ration (90%) consists of plankton. But a very important role belongs to eggs of various pelagic fish including pilchard sardine. Thick gatherings of bellow-fish in the spawning ground of pilchard sardine very badly affect the efficiency of spawning.
In certain periods of 1967-1976 and 1952-1957 due to the change of the hydrological conditions of the intensiveness of the Canary stream and upwelling there happened a growth of the population of bellow-fish that resulted in expansion of the mass occurrence in the regions of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the middle Europe and the Northern-Western Africa. In such periods the biomass of bellow-fish reaches very big volumes.
In August 1973 the biomass of bellow-fish on the shelf and edge of the continental slope by Morocco amounted to 209 th. tons. In November-December 1974 - 341 th. tons and in February 1974 - 1239 th. tons. Its biomass was 2-5 times as much as the one of pilchard sardine. The echo metric research showed that the biomass of bellow-fish by Morocco in 1976 was 1300 th. tons. The growth of the bellow-fish biomass resulted in reduction of the biomass of massive commercial species, for instance - of pilchard sardine.
Bellow-fish in fact was not fished. The catches were used for fish meal production. Nevertheless, it creates big problems during catching operations since its massive occurrence in the nets results in their damage and disorientates the hydro acoustic devices as the echo records of bellow-fish are very much like that ones of sardine. So, the thick gatherings of bellow-fish complicate fishing of other species.
Computer technologies for designing
The efficiency of trawl performance mainly depends on the suitability of the trawl construction for fishing a certain fish species - for the pattern of fish behaviour and distribution in water thickness. In this sense while the technical parameters of the trawl being designed - strength, required rigging and others - can be determined by calculations, it is not possible during designing to calculate the fishing capacity of the trawl meaning the degree of suitability of the trawl for fishing of the relevant fish species. So, creation of new, highly efficient in performance trawls and trawl systems, first of all, challenges the problem of taking in account the known peculiarities of behaviour and distribution of the fishing object in the zone of the trawl operation.
This problem is solved both in Russia and abroad in two directions. The first one is based on designing of rope-and-net part of the trawl so that the construction elements take into account the known data on fish behaviour. For this purpose the designer produces a new trawl model on paper and then there goes a long period of testing the designed ideas on physical models and trial products during fishing process - in site.
The second direction was created at the Department of the Fishery of the Kaliningrad State Technical University under the guidance of professor A. Fridman. It is trawl designing based on a prototype. The expediency of making a design using the prototype - construction of one of already existing and well performing trawl - is evident.
Introduction of computer technologies has promoted a considerable development of methods of creating new fish tackle in both mentioned directions.
The methods of calculating the design parameters developed within the framework of the second direction required a computer program support. For this purpose within the Fishery Department there was created training and research laboratory of the fishing techniques and there the developments and studies began.
The first result was creation of two program complexes: "Substantiation and optimization of fishing trawl design parameters" and "Balancing of trawl doors".
The first complex of computer programs enables to calculate such values of the main trawl parameters (vertical and horizontal opening, aggregate resistance, trawling speed, mesh stroke, rope diameter) that, on the one hand, take into account the peculiarities of fish behaviour and distribution (dimensions of the fish schools being caught, range of fish reaction to the tackle and its details), and on the other hand ensure their compliance with the available trawl traction. Namely the possibility of the correct regard of the peculiarities of fish behaviour and distribution while substantiation of the trawl parameters distinguishes these computer programs from the ones known up until today. The calculation of the mentioned parameters is carried out on the basis of parameters of the prototype trawl and this guarantees high precision and reliability of the obtained results.
Anti-Fouling Fishing Equipment Answering
Nets in the stationary fishing equipment (sweep-nets, drag-nets, traps, etc.) and fish-ponds are affected by bio-damaging influence of live organisms and various fouling objects as soon as 8-10 days after they were fixed. It considerably worsens the conditions of fish farming in the ponds, dramatically brings down harvest in stationary fishing equipment especially with mesh sizes limited by the fishing regulations. Fouling of the netting results in breach of water exchange, accumulation of products from feed decay, decrease of oxygen content in the water and, consequently, in decrease in growth of the farmed fish and causes development of parasitic fungi on the netting. It also negatively affects the marketable appearance and nutritional value of fish harvested by means of the stationary fishing equipment. The labour-intensiveness of fishing materials exploitation decreases as it is necessary to remove the bulky fishing equipment from the fishery site earlier and clean it from the fouling.
"MariNPO" has developed an anti-fouling composition called KSP-01 (TU 2257-002-2318 2386) and the technology of impregnation of the above materials with it. This composition is manufactured on the water-dispersion base and eliminates application of explosive and fire-dangerous solvents when used.
The netting impregnated with KSP-01 as well as netting without impregnation were tested in the lab and on the site and the results are as follows:
On the basis of the results of long-term experiments it has been established that the service period of the ponds netting with anti-fouling treatment is twice as much as that of the untreated material. The technology of manufacturing KSP-01 composition and impregnation of the fishing materials is acceptable to be sold directly to consumers. "MariNPO" provides assistance in organization of impregnation, supplies necessary documentation and carries out the author supervision.
Peculiarities of modern trawls
for fishing of rarefied fish gatherings
In some areas of the World Ocean in certain periods of a year and even a day fish forms rarified gatherings in the pelagic zone. For instance, in spring and summer in the Irminger Sea redfish forms such gatherings 200-900 m deep. The density of fish in rarified gatherings is rather low and it is not efficient to fish them with traditional trawls.
The most successful in this sense is a multi-depth trawl with a wide mouth opening and good manoeuvrability. Such trawls enable within the short period of time to concentrate from the big area rarified fishing objects and catch them. It is not complicated to design a trawl with big dimensions. But for this trawl to have good fishing capacity and be handy the traditional approach to trawl materials, mechanization of trawl hauling and casting should be changed.
Russian manufacturers still use kapron that negatively affects trawl fishing capacity and performance. The alternative is a net of a smaller diameter having enhanced strength and low specific gravity if compared to kapron.
Lately, many foreign companies have begun to develop net materials with the said characteristics and introduce them to the world market. For example Dupont offered super hard wearing nylon. Other American companies introduced super strong polyethylene materials Spectra and Dinecs.
Application of super hard wearing net materials with a small specific gravity enables to create trawls with big dimensions suitable for fishing rarefied fish gatherings. A good examples in this sense is Gloria trawl the developed in Iceland for fishing rarefied red fish gatherings.
The conclusion based on the said is that for fishing rarefied gatherings of pelagic fish one should use multi-depth trawl with big dimensions with enlarged mesh size in the fore part produced of net materials with improved exploitation parameters. For the purpose of improvement of the fishing capacity it is necessary to produce the trawl net with the widened perimeter of its small-mesh section and perimeter of entrance into the trawl seine.
Hydrodynamic channel of MarinPO.
Results of 20-year exploitation
In 1979 at the Kaliningrad Sea Scientific-Industrial Association for Fishery Techniques (MarinPO) there was commissioned a big hydrodynamic channel (hereinafter - hydrochannel) for carrying out researches in the sphere of hydrodynamics of fishery tackle, underwater technics and other technical means for development of the ocean, including hydrodynamics of vessels. The construction took 10 years and today it is one the largest objects of this type in the world.
The overall dimensions of the hydrochannel are 35.0x9.5x12.0 m, the dimensions of the working section are 14.0x3.0x2.5m. In the channel 900 tons of water circulate with the speed from 0.05 m/sec to 3.4 m/sec. The hydraulic track of the channel is produced similarly to a wind tunnel with spatial confuser (200 tons of water are kept by vacuum). The working section open on top has got 18 windows.
The quality of the stream in the working section enables to carry out there quantity researches on almost all aspects of marine technics. The hydrochannel is equipped with a demountable wave-producer and tugging trolley along the whole working section.
During 20 years with the help of the hydrochannel a big volume of scientific researches, first of all, on the fishing tackle was performed. Among them: hydrodynamics of threads and ropes; flat and volumetric net constructions, including trawls; distribution of stream (pressure areas) inside net constructions; inertia parameters of net constructions; dynamics of trawl complex management and much more. Also the researches on hydrodynamics of trap-nets, pound boxes, cages and other devices of aquaculture, including those in condition of surface roughness, were carried out.
Based on the channel researches a new system of trawl operation was created. Trawl doors were replaced by revolving warps - revolving of warps on their axes generates lateral hydrodynamic power (effect of magnus) that substitutes the thrusting (lifting) power of trawl doors. If trawl doors are replaced by rigid rotors then the revolving warps can ensure revolving of the rotors. For revolving of the ropes hydro motors are installed on board of the vessel. Changing the revolutions of the ropes one can influence the value of thrusting power. The quality coefficient of such system is 8-10 times higher than of the trawl doors system. The new system is a system of future. It has been tested in sea but has not been introduced into practice yet due to the technical boldness and certain conservatism of fishermen.
The above is only one example of the numerous scientific and practical achievements obtained on the basis of researches in the hydrochannel.
Depth of Technological Processing
as Factor of Increasing Efficiency of Fish Production
One of the tendencies in today's economic situation is reengineering. The characteristic peculiarity of technological innovations is reorganization of the business in the way to be able to act on market effectively. Constant changes in the technology on market force companies heading for surviving and preserving their competitiveness to reorganize their strategy. Reengineering is becoming an element of every day life of a company. The means of reengineering do not presuppose a change in the fundamentals of company's economy. Reengineering recommendations are aimed at increase of efficiency of company's operation and adoption of economic programs of production re-structurization.
The guarantee of success presupposes a scientific development of the algorithm of choice of investment projects and organizational ensuring of realization of this algorithm. Only on this basis the potential investor has got the possibility to take into account all the real factors and to choose that very investment project which promises minimum risk and maximum possibility of success also in respect of optimization of investments and yield.
Enhancing of the economic efficiency of the operation of the fish industry can be reached with the help of innovations in the fish processing production. In particular, the technological innovations will result in preservation and expansion of the own market sector not only on account of a high product quality but also of new developments including deep processing of raw materials. A special interest in the recent years is drawn to the rational treatment of aqua raw materials having high nutritional and biological value.
The aim of the article is to establish the formalized correlation between the depth of technological treatment of fish raw materials, expenses on each stage of these processes and economic results for assessment of viability of innovation investments.
Having the task to establish the efficient methods of manufacturing food products by means of development of new technologies of fish and seafood processing, production of new types of products and also to find out the measures for improvement of products quality and decrease of their production cost it is necessary to determine the degree of their readiness for application in the industrial production process, necessary expenses and pay back period when the technological equipment on enterprises and vessels is replaced fully or partially. The most relevant in this respect is determination of priority tendencies of technological processing of products according to the degree of its scientific capacity and connection with economic efficiency of the results to be reached. The authors suggest the following algorithm to tackle the said problems:
Within the fourth point of the algorithm it is worth noting that according to the expert findings in respect of the degree of complicacy of fish products technologies almost the same (the lowest) complicacy (is given in a number system from 1 to 5) is characteristic for chilling (1.78), freezing (1.8) and production of animal feeds (2.16). Culinary (3.06), brining (3.35) and smoking (2.87) presuppose more complicated treatment. Canning (4.32) and production of biologically active substances (4.78) are the most complicated as far as the technical treatment of fish raw materials is concerned. The further ranging based on kinds of seafood should be more specialized. As for the profitability the study determined that the most profitable technologies are smoking and production of animals feeds - both 30%. They are followed by canning - 17%, brining - 8%, chilling - 4% and freezing - 2%. There is no information about the profitability of production of biologically active substances.
The innovation approach in respect of the development of the real industrial sector is considered to be among the progressive ones but it is very important to assess and choose the most progressive and efficient innovations. It is a rather difficult problem. The algorithm suggested by the authors to some extent makes tackling of this problem easier and objective.
Prompt Estimation of Vessel's Stability
To ensure the stability during exploitation each vessel received from the Registry the approved Information on stability that contains data on stability in several typical load options. Nevertheless the actual load, as a rule, never answers the stipulated ones. Due to this the master should on every day carry out estimation of the vessel's stability. He should all the time keep an eye on the changes of the load (displacement and coordinates of the centre of gravity. The table to be filled in to calculate the current load contains dozens (up to 80 and more) of load items. Filling in of the table is a rather time and labour consuming work during which arithmetical mistakes occur.
But not all items are of equal importance. The major part of the whole load is constituted by the unloaded vessel and constant cargoes. The most important variable items are fuel and fish. They mostly affect the vessel's stability.
The author suggests to divide the whole load into several big categories:
Since the whole load and related draft and stability depend only on two load items, they can be presented by an appropriate diagram in coordinates Fish-Fuel. This diagram has been called "Diagram of vessel's safe load". It has got the following zone:
It is very easy to estimate the stability on the basis of diagram. While doing everyday calculations of the stability the master does not need to know its actual parameters. It is enough to make sure that they answer the requirements of the Rules. The required answer is not "how much" but "yes" or "no". If the directed order of consuming fuel and loading holds and tweendecks is observed then to know the answer it is enough just to plot a mark with coordinates fish-fuel. If it happens to be in A zone, everything is OK. If this mark of the current load gets into B zone it is necessary to take on liquid ballast and recalculate the stability by filling in the table of load. The mark in C zone means that the load mark is submerged. If the mark gets into D or E zones (error zones) it is recommended to fill in the table of load to check that everything is OK.
By plotting marks of the current vessel's status on every day basis one can promptly see if the vessel is nearing the dangerous situation and take appropriate preventive measures.
When giving recommendations on implementation of the ISMC by administrations the international community demands that the persons responsible for ship management act through the system approach. To author's mind the national normative and methodological bases do not explain clearly enough the meaning of the above. It results in inadequate interpretation of the ISMC text by the intellectual subjects and inability of the majority of Companies' employees to identify the Company as a system, to single out its subsystems and build links between them and Safety Management System being governed by the ISMC.
The system analysis is a normative methodology of solving big problems based on the concept of systems. It is purposed for the problems being beyond the routine scale. The essence of the system analysis is in its conceptual apparatus criticus, in its ideas, approach and aims. Based on the use of the said apparatus there are the following results of the interpretation of the ISMC text and attached documents.
There believed to be three levels of problem solving: super-national, national and of the shipping company. The latter is held responsible for the result of the solution.
On the super-national level the solution of the safety matter is evinced in activity for improvement of characteristics of the system of international shipping.
On the national level it is activity that in its minimum is regulated by the safety standard - the ISMC.
The basis of the company's activity aiming at the safe exploitation of vessels and prevention of pollution is a consciously (not accidentally) performed function that in its turn excites the system (the company in the whole and the vessel with her crew in particular) that in its turn begins to act. The ISMC singles out three categories of persons forming the subsystem of the inverse relationship that generates the process of company management. They are:
Such an hierarchy allows to concentrate the whole of the safety problems exclusively in the appointed points and to solve it with the maximum efficiency.
Based on the above and as applied to the special aims the safety management system can be defined as a company's subsystem of the inverse relationship being functionally aimed at ensuring of fulfillment of norms and recommendations for the safe performance of the key ship operations by the certain section of the company's personnel.
On the Islands of Diego Ramirez
The author tells about the Islands of Diego Ramirez that lie 50 miles to the south of Cape Horn. He happened to be there during the tourist voyage of vessel Academic Boris Petrov in Antarctica.
The islands belong to Chili. They consist of several small islands and above water rocks with the total length of five and a half nautical miles. The biggest are the Isle of Bartolome (189 m above sea-level) and the Isle of Gonzalo (139 m above sea-level).
There are only five people living on the Isle of Gonzalo: four servicemen of the Navy of Chili and one young scientist studying the colony of albatrosses. There is a meteorological station that constantly keeps in touch with the port of Punta-Arenas in the Straits if Magellan. Every four months they send new shift and provision.
The people are provided with good living conditions, the living apartments are equipped with all conveniences.
The visitors climbed to the very top of the island and made a picture in memory of the event. The view was unforgettable: to the West there laid the spaciousness of the Pacific Ocean, to the East beyond the Drake Strait there swashed waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Just few people happen to be in this part of the planet and see this magnificent picture.
Sea expeditions of English to Russian
In the history of opening of the Western part of the Russian Arctic the period from the middle of XIX till 1920s specially stands out, when the vessels of numerous national and foreign expeditions came to this region. To them belong many geographical and scientific discoveries that laid the base for all further fundamental knowledge about the nature of the islands of these high latitudes: meteorology, fauna and flora, geology of Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Vaigach, Kolguev and the northern zone of the continent coast.
A separate page of the history of opening of the region belongs to the English. They gave the world the first data about seas and lands located to the north of the known at the time boundaries of Europe. The first expedition left London in 1553 on three vessels under the command of Sir Hugh Willoby. Three years later another English Stephan Barrow was the first European to visit Vaigach Island. Further voyages took place in 1580, 1893, 1894 and the last one - in 1897. The participants used to take notes of their observations and make drawings, take records of their meetings with the Nenets, the Samoeds. The foreigners would study the mode of life, traditions, religious rites of the indigenous population. Not infrequently they were forced by nature to spend many long months in the aboriginal camps. The expedition of 1893 was the first to give a detailed description of the nature of Kolguev Island and life of the islanders. They visited the oldest in the Russian Arctic chapel and the description they gave is the only one available.
The last expedition of 1897 managed during the period from June17 till August 13 to visit a great number of islands: Kolguev, Dolgiy, Vaigach, Voronov, Novaya Zemlya, Pakhtusov Isles (after the discovery of the latter they were the first to arrive there). They ploughed the sea around the islands, doubled the capes and came to every river mouth. In every place the English would carry out detailed geographical, ethnographic, geological, botanical researches that became an invaluable contribution into the study of the Russian Arctic.
TRANSLATED BY GALINA KOPYTOVA